Cover image for Managing motivation : a manager's guide to diagnosing and improving motivation
Managing motivation : a manager's guide to diagnosing and improving motivation
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Publication Information:
New York ; London : Psychology Press, c2008
Physical Description:
xiv, 176 p. ; 24 cm.

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PSZ JB 30000010235220 HF5549.5 .M63 P75 2008 Open Access Book Book

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This slim motivation guidebook was written to bridge the gap between the academic research on motivation and to present it in a form that is useful to the practicing manager. In essence, the book presents a theory of motivation and how to use it without ever mentioning the word "theory". The goal of the book is to give managers a kind of mental model to use in thinking about motivation and to show them how to use this mental model for practical management actions to diagnose and improve motivation of subordinates. The book is written in three sections: Understanding Motivation, Diagnosing Motivation and Improving Motivation. The book incorporates case studies and many examples of how to successfully manage motivation.

Author Notes

Robert D. Pritchard is currently Professor of Psychology and Management at the University of Central Florida. His PhD is from the University of Minnesota in Industrial /Organizational Psychology. He recently won the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award at the SIOP meeting (2002) and is a Fellow of APS and APA .He has been the series editor for the Society for Organizational Psychology Frontiers Book Series since 2003. He is currently a board member of the following journals:

Organizational Behavior and Human Performance

Motivation and Emotion

Journal of Applied Psychology

Elissa L . Ashwood is currently Director , Organizational Development and Training for AIG Retirement Services, Los Angeles. Formerly she was Vice president, Finance for Citibank in New York.

She has an MBA from William E Simon Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Rochester and is currently studying for a Certificate in Organization Design from U of Southern California, Marshall School of Business.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Section 1 Understanding Motivation
Chapter 1 Motivation and Managementp. 3
Basic Assumptions About Peoplep. 4
People Have a Fundamental Need to Do a Good Jobp. 4
People Want Control at Workp. 5
People Do Not Want to Be Held Accountable for Things They Cannot Controlp. 5
People Want Feedback but Don't Like to Be Evaluatedp. 5
People Want to Be Valuedp. 6
People Do Not Want Their Time Wastedp. 6
So What Is Motivation?p. 6
Why Is Understanding Motivation So Important?p. 7
1 Motivation Is Understandablep. 8
2 Motivation Is a Processp. 8
3 Motivation Is a Fundamental Issue, Not a Fadp. 8
4 Motivation Is a Long-Term Issuep. 8
5 Motivation Is Logicalp. 8
6 Motivation Is Manageablep. 9
7 Motivation Is Also Work Strategyp. 9
8 Motivation Is a Collaborationp. 9
9 With High Motivation, Everybody Winsp. 9
Using This Bookp. 10
One-Minute Assessmentp. 10
Symptoms of Low Motivationp. 10
Scoringp. 10
Key Pointsp. 12
Chapter 2 Understanding Needs and Energyp. 13
The Energy Poolp. 13
Needsp. 14
How Strong Is a Need?p. 14
Need Satisfaction and Dissatisfactionp. 16
Need Strength Versus Need Satisfactionp. 16
Actual Versus Anticipated Need Satisfactionp. 17
Using What We Know About Needsp. 17
Key Pointsp. 18
Chapter 3 Understanding Motivationp. 19
The Five Components of Motivationp. 19
Actionsp. 19
Resultsp. 20
Evaluationsp. 21
Outcomesp. 23
Need Satisfactionp. 23
Maximizing Motivationp. 24
Key Pointsp. 24
Chapter 4 Dynamics of the Motivation Modelp. 25
Action-to-Results Connectionsp. 26
Results-to-Evaluation Connectionsp. 27
Evaluation-to-Outcome Connectionsp. 31
Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connectionsp. 33
Awareness of Components of the Modelp. 35
Motivation as a Processp. 37
Key Pointsp. 38
Section 2 Diagnosing and Improving Motivation
An Extended Case Studyp. 39
Chapter 5 Planning a Motivation Improvement Projectp. 43
Step 1 Plan the Projectp. 43
Unit Sizep. 44
Diagnose the Group, Individuals, or Both?p. 44
Current Level of Motivationp. 44
Value of the Diagnosisp. 45
Set Timeline Expectationsp. 45
Step 2 Investigate the Strength of Each Connection and Possible Causesp. 45
Gathering Datap. 46
Introducing the Project to a Group or Individualp. 47
Step 3 Identify Appropriate Solutionsp. 48
Step 4 Decide Which Problem and Solution to Tackle and Measure Resultsp. 48
Key Pointsp. 48
Extended Case: Part 2p. 49
Chapter 6 Diagnosing Action-to-Results Connectionsp. 53
Understanding Action-to-Results Connectionsp. 53
Determinants of Action-to-Results Connectionsp. 57
Capabilitiesp. 57
Resourcesp. 58
Authorityp. 59
Work Strategiesp. 60
Action-to-Results Diagnosis Roadmapp. 61
Extended Case: Part 3p. 64
Monday, March 11, 11 a.m. Phone Meetingp. 64
Chapter 7 Diagnosing Results-to-Evaluation Connectionsp. 69
Understanding Results-to-Evaluation Connectionsp. 69
Which Results Are Measured and Evaluated?p. 70
Simultaneous Measurement and Evaluationp. 71
Determinants of Results-to-Evaluation Connectionsp. 71
Knowing What Results Are Valuedp. 72
Consistency With the Broader Organizationp. 73
Agreement Among Evaluatorsp. 74
Effective Feedback Systemp. 76
A Good Feedback System Needs to Address All These Issuesp. 77
Results-to-Evaluation Diagnosis Roadmapp. 80
Finding Unclear Connectionsp. 82
Finding Frequently Changing Connectionsp. 82
Extended Case: Part 4p. 85
Tuesday, March 19, 9 a.m. Regional Meeting at Headquartersp. 85
Chapter 8 Diagnosing Evaluation-to-Outcomes Connectionsp. 91
Understanding Evaluation-to-Outcome Connectionsp. 91
Examplesp. 91
Determinants of Evaluation-to-Outcome Connectionsp. 95
Outcomesp. 95
Consistencyp. 96
Evaluation-to-Outcome Connection Diagnosis Roadmapp. 98
Accuracyp. 98
Extended Case: Part 5p. 101
Friday, April 5 Conference Callp. 101
Chapter 9 Diagnosing Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connectionsp. 103
Understanding Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connectionsp. 103
Examplesp. 104
Determinants of Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connectionsp. 105
Current Need Statep. 106
Number of Needs an Outcome Satisfiesp. 108
Fairnessp. 109
Expectations and Comparisonsp. 109
Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Diagnosis Roadmapp. 111
Accuracyp. 112
Importance of Other Reward Systemsp. 112
Extended Case: Part 6p. 113
Monday, April 5p. 113
Section 3 Improving Motivation
Chapter 10 Making Improvementsp. 119
Action-to-Results Connection Improvementsp. 119
Capabilityp. 120
Resourcesp. 121
Authorityp. 121
Work Strategiesp. 121
Results-to-Evaluation Connection Improvementsp. 122
Knowing Valued Resultsp. 122
Consistency With Broader Organizationp. 122
Agreement Among Evaluatorsp. 123
The Feedback Systemp. 124
Evaluation-to-Outcome Connection Improvementsp. 128
Number of Outcomesp. 128
Consequences of Good and Poor Performancep. 129
Consistency Across People and Timep. 130
Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connection Improvementsp. 131
Current Need Statep. 131
Number of Needs Satisfiedp. 132
Fairness of the Reward Systemp. 132
Expectationsp. 133
Comparisonp. 133
Extended Case: Conclusionp. 134
Chapter 11 Predicting the Effects of Changesp. 137
Implementing Financial Incentivesp. 137
Financial Incentives and Motivationp. 138
Financial Incentives and Action-to-Results Connectionsp. 138
Capabilityp. 138
Resourcesp. 139
Authority and Work Strategiesp. 140
Financial Incentives and the Results-to-Evaluation Connectionsp. 140
The Feedback Systemp. 140
Financial Incentives and Evaluation-to-Outcome Connectionsp. 145
Goal or Continuous Improvement Design?p. 146
Consistency Across People and Timep. 148
Financial Incentives and the Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Connectionp. 149
Incentives and Motivationp. 150
Some Concluding Commentsp. 153
Appendix 1 Our Approach to Assessing Motivationp. 155
Overall Connectionsp. 155
Conclusions: Overall Connectionsp. 155
Determinantsp. 156
Action-to-Results Determinantsp. 156
Conclusions: Action-to-Results Determinantsp. 156
Results-to-Evaluation Determinantsp. 156
Conclusions: Results-to-Evaluation Determinantsp. 160
Evaluation-to-Outcome Determinantsp. 160
Conclusions: Evaluation-to-Outcome Determinantsp. 160
Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Determinantsp. 160
Conclusions: Outcome-to-Need Satisfaction Determinantsp. 160
Prioritized List of Recommendationsp. 160
Appendix 2 Drawing Connection Graphsp. 163
References and Bibliographyp. 167
Scholarly Works on Motivationp. 167
Designing Feedback Systemsp. 168
Indexp. 169