Cover image for Elements of the p block : virtual crystals II
Title:
Elements of the p block : virtual crystals II
Publication Information:
Cambridge, U.K. : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002
Physical Description:
1 CD-ROM ; 12 cm
ISBN:
9780854046904
General Note:
Accompanies text entitled : The molecular world : elements of the p block (QD461 M644 2002)
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PSZ JB 30000010037625 CP 2694 Computer File Accompanies Open Access Book
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Summary

Summary

Presenting a systematic approach to the chemistry of the p Block elements and hydrogen, this book also introduces some basic topics concerning chemical bonding, such as oxidation numbers, bond strengths, dipole moments and intermolecular forces. The chemistry is illustrated by coverage of the biological role of nitric oxide and of hydrogen bonding, and the new chemistry of carbon nanotubes. Applied aspects of the topic are developed in the two Case Studies, which examine the causes and prevention of acid rain and the inorganic chemical industry. The accompanying CD-ROMs cover silicate mineral structures, the inert pair effect and a database of chemical reactions of the p Block elements. The Molecular World series provides an integrated introduction to all branches of chemistry for both students wishing to specialise and those wishing to gain a broad understanding of chemistry and its relevance to the everyday world and to other areas of science. The books, with their Case Studies and accompanying multi-media interactive CD-ROMs, will also provide valuable resource material for teachers and lecturers. (The CD-ROMs are designed for use on a PC running Windows 95, 98, ME or 2000.)


Reviews 1

Choice Review

This is one of at least eight titles in the series "The Molecular World," under the auspices of the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK. They are readily available through sellers such as Amazon.uk as well as the Royal Society . Charlie Hardin serves as Senior Lecturer, David Johnson as Reader, and Robert Janes as Staff Tutor in the Department of Chemistry at The Open University . The undergraduate course for which this series is designed is described at the site . The Open University considers this a Level 2 course, corresponding roughly to the second-year level at a US college or university. After preliminary discussion of redox, acid-base, and bonding concepts, the book discusses the elements in the last six columns of the Periodic Table. Two case studies enhance the book--one on acid rain, the other on industrial inorganic chemistry. Learning outcomes and a set of questions and answers are offered. Specific references to the literature are lacking. However, two high-quality CD-ROMs accompany the book: one has numerous demonstrations of reactions; the other explores silicate structures. ^BSumming Up: Recommended. Lower- and upper-division undergraduates; two-year technical program students. A. Viste emeritus, Augustana College (SD)


Table of Contents

Elements of the p BlockCharlie Harding and Rob Janes and David Johnson
1 Introductionp. 15
1.1 Group numbers and the Periodic Tablep. 15
2 Oxidation and Reductionp. 17
2.1 Oxidation numbers or oxidation statesp. 17
2.2 Balancing redox equationsp. 19
2.3 Summary of Section 2p. 21
3 Defining Acids and Basesp. 22
3.1 Strengths of acid and basesp. 22
3.2 The Bronsted-Lowry theoryp. 22
3.3 The pH scale and acid strengthp. 25
3.4 Summary of Section 3p. 27
4 Some Aspects of Chemical Bondingp. 29
4.1 Lewis acids and basesp. 29
4.2 The strengths of chemical bondsp. 30
4.3 Bond enthalpy terms and electronegativitiesp. 32
4.4 Dipole momentsp. 33
4.5 Intermolecular forcesp. 36
4.6 Summary of Section 4p. 39
5 The Chemistry of Hydrogenp. 42
5.1 Preparation and properties of hydrogenp. 42
5.2 Industrial uses of hydrogenp. 43
5.3 Hydrogen as a fuelp. 44
5.4 Atomic and ionic properties of hydrogenp. 46
5.5 The aqueous hydrogen ionp. 49
5.6 Summary of Sections 5.1-5.5p. 50
5.7 The hydrides of the typical elementsp. 50
5.7.1 Salt-like hydridesp. 51
5.7.2 Macromolecular hydridesp. 51
5.7.3 Molecular hydridesp. 52
5.7.4 Trends in structurep. 52
5.8 Hydrogen-bondingp. 52
5.9 Summary of Section 5.7 and 5.8p. 59
6 Group VII/17: Halogens and Halidesp. 61
6.1 Industrial uses of the halogensp. 63
6.2 Properties of halogen atomsp. 64
6.3 Oxidation number-1: halidesp. 65
6.3.1 The hydrogen halidesp. 66
6.4 Thermodynamics of the halogen-halide relationshipp. 68
6.4.1 Halides and oxidation numbersp. 70
6.4.2 Oxidizing strength of the halogens in aqueous solutionp. 71
6.5 Summary of Sections 6.1-6.4p. 72
6.6 Higher oxidation states of the halogensp. 74
6.6.1 Halogen oxides and oxoacidsp. 77
6.6.2 Interhalogen compoundsp. 80
6.6.3 Polyhalogen ionsp. 81
6.6.4 Summary of Section 6.6p. 83
7 Group VIII/18: the Noble Gasesp. 85
7.1 The discovery of the noble gasesp. 85
7.2 The manufacture and properties of the noble gasesp. 87
7.3 Uses of the noble gasesp. 89
7.4 Summary of Sections 7.1-7.3p. 90
7.5 Noble gas compoundsp. 91
7.5.1 The fluorides and oxides of xenon and kryptonp. 91
7.5.2 Other xenon compoundsp. 94
7.5.3 Helium, neon and argon chemistryp. 94
7.5.4 The structure of noble gas compoundsp. 95
7.5.5 The bonding in noble gas compoundsp. 96
7.5.6 Summary of Section 7.5p. 98
8 General Observations on Second- and Third-Row Elements and Periodic Trendsp. 100
8.1 Single and multiple bondsp. 101
8.2 Third-row elements: a case for expansion of the octet?p. 102
8.3 Trends in the Periodic Tablep. 104
8.3.1 Trends across the Periodsp. 104
8.3.2 Trends down the Groupsp. 105
8.4 Summary of Section 8p. 107
9 The Group III/13 Elementsp. 108
9.1 Boron: occurrence and extractionp. 109
9.1.1 The boron atomp. 109
9.1.2 Lewis acidity in the boron halidesp. 109
9.1.3 Boron and the boridesp. 111
9.1.4 The boron hydridesp. 113
9.1.5 Boron-oxygen compoundsp. 114
9.1.6 Summary of Section 9.1p. 116
9.2 Aluminiump. 117
9.2.1 Aqueous chemistryp. 118
9.2.2 Aluminium sulfate and water treatmentp. 118
9.2.3 Aluminium toxicityp. 120
9.2.4 Aluminium halidesp. 122
9.2.5 Two observations about aluminium chemistryp. 123
9.3 Gallium, indium and thalliump. 123
9.3.1 The inert pair effectp. 126
9.3.2 Summary of Sections 9.2 and 9.3p. 127
10 The Group IV/14 Elementsp. 129
10.1 Structures and properties of the elementsp. 129
10.2 Carbonp. 132
10.2.1 Carbides--molecular, salt-like and interstitialp. 137
10.2.2 Oxides of carbonp. 138
10.2.3 Summary of Section 10.2p. 141
10.3 Siliconp. 142
10.3.1 Bonding in silicon compoundsp. 143
10.3.2 Silicon-oxygen compoundsp. 145
10.3.3 Halosilanesp. 149
10.3.4 Compounds of silicon with hydrogen and alkyl groupsp. 150
10.4 Germanium, tin and leadp. 153
10.5 Summary of Sections 10.3 and 10.4p. 154
11 The Group V/15 Elementsp. 156
11.1 Structures and properties of the elementsp. 156
11.2 Nitrogenp. 158
11.2.1 Nitrogen hydridesp. 161
11.2.2 Nitrogen halidesp. 162
11.2.3 Azidesp. 163
11.2.4 Nitrogen-oxygen compoundsp. 163
11.2.5 Summary of Sections 11.1 and 11.2p. 169
11.3 Phosphorusp. 170
11.3.1 The chemistry of phosphorusp. 171
11.3.2 Phosphorus halidesp. 172
11.3.3 Phosphorus hydridesp. 172
11.3.4 The oxides and sulfides of phosphorusp. 173
11.3.5 Phosphoric acidp. 174
11.3.6 Compounds with multiple bonds between phosphorus atoms and from phosphorus to carbonp. 174
11.3.7 Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: the polyphosphazenesp. 175
11.3.8 Summary of Section 11.3p. 176
11.4 Oxoacidsp. 177
11.4.1 Oxoacid formulaep. 179
11.4.2 Nomenclature of oxoacidsp. 180
11.4.3 Prediction of formulaep. 180
11.4.4 Strengths of oxoacidsp. 181
11.4.5 Condensation of oxoacidsp. 183
11.5 Arsenic, antimony and bismuthp. 188
11.6 Summary of Sections 11.4 and 11.5p. 189
12 The Group VI/16 Elementsp. 190
12.1 Structures and properties of the elementsp. 190
12.2 Oxygenp. 195
12.2.1 Peroxidesp. 196
12.2.2 Oxides and the Periodic Tablep. 197
12.2.3 Summary of Section 12.2p. 197
12.3 Sulfurp. 198
12.3.1 Sulfur hydrides (sulfanes)p. 198
12.3.2 Sulfidesp. 199
12.3.3 Sulfur halidesp. 199
12.3.4 Oxides of sulfurp. 201
12.3.5 Oxoacids of sulfurp. 202
12.3.6 Sulfur-carbon and sulfur-nitrogen compoundsp. 204
12.4 Selenium, tellurium and poloniump. 206
12.5 Summary of Sections 12.3 and 12.4p. 209
13 The Typical Elements: A Summary of Trends in the Periodic Tablep. 210
13.1 Trends across the Periodsp. 210
13.1.1 Metals, semi-metals and non-metalsp. 210
13.1.2 The structures of halides, hydrides and oxidesp. 211
13.1.3 Trends in the formulae of oxides and hydridesp. 212
13.1.4 Acid-base properties of oxides and hydridesp. 213
13.2 Trends down the Groupsp. 213
13.2.1 Metals, semi-metals and non-metalsp. 213
13.2.2 Structure and bonding in halides and oxidesp. 214
13.2.3 Acid-base properties of oxidesp. 216
13.2.4 Special differences between the second and subsequent Periodsp. 216
13.2.5 The inert pair effectp. 217
Learning Outcomesp. 219
Questions: Answers and Commentsp. 222
Further Readingp. 241
Acknowledgementsp. 242
Case Study: Acid Rain: Sulfur and Power GenerationAndrew Galwey
1 Pollution and the Environmentp. 245
2 Acid Rain and Sulfur Release Into the Atmospherep. 246
2.1 Coal: the most abundant fossil fuelp. 248
2.2 Sulfur in oil can be extracted before usep. 248
2.3 Other energy sourcesp. 249
2.4 Acid rainp. 250
3 Chemical Characteristics of Coalp. 251
4 Sulfur in Coalp. 253
4.1 Sulfur content of coalsp. 253
4.2 Sulfur removal before combustionp. 253
4.3 Sulfur removal after combustionp. 254
5 Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmospherep. 255
5.1 Homogeneous oxidation in the gas phasep. 255
5.2 Homogeneous oxidation in liquid waterp. 256
5.3 Heterogeneous oxidation catalysed by dust particlesp. 256
5.4 Sulfate present in the atmospherep. 256
6 Effects of Acid Rain in Soils and Groundwaterp. 257
6.1 Soils: structure and compositionp. 258
6.2 Groundwaterp. 259
7 Effects of Acid Rain on Natural Environmental Systemsp. 261
7.1 History of pH changes in lakes in Scotlandp. 261
7.2 Acid rain and forest damagep. 263
7.3 Lake acidification and freshwater fishp. 264
7.4 Acid rain in the human environmentp. 265
8 Cleaning Processes in Power Stationsp. 266
8.1 Electrostatic precipitation (ESP)p. 267
8.2 Flue gas desulfurization (FGD)p. 268
8.3 Other methods of sulfur removalp. 268
9 Acid Rain in Contextp. 270
Acknowledgementsp. 272
Case Study: Industrial Inorganic ChemistryAlan Heaton and Rob Janes
1 Introductionp. 275
2 Heavy Inorganic Chemicalsp. 276
2.1 Sources of industrial inorganic chemicalsp. 276
2.1.1 Oresp. 276
2.1.2 Airp. 276
2.1.3 Waterp. 277
2.1.4 Elementsp. 278
2.2 The production of selected heavy inorganic chemicalsp. 279
2.2.1 Sulfuric acidp. 282
2.2.2 Phosphoric acidp. 282
2.2.3 Ammonia, nitric acid and nitratesp. 283
2.2.4 The chlor-alkali industryp. 285
2.2.5 The inorganic fluorine industryp. 287
3 Speciality Inorganic Chemicalsp. 290
3.1 Inorganic chemicals in electronicsp. 290
3.2 Inorganic chemicals in medicinep. 291
3.3 Inorganic chemicals as coloursp. 292
4 Summaryp. 293
5 Further Readingp. 293
Acknowledgementsp. 294
Indexp. 295
CD-ROM Informationp. 306