Cover image for Manufacturing processes : grinding, honing, lapping
Title:
Manufacturing processes : grinding, honing, lapping
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Germany : Springer Verlag Berlin, 2009
Physical Description:
v. 2 : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN:
9783540922582

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Item Category 1
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PSZ JB 30000010204791 TS183 K57 2009 Open Access Book
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Summary

Summary

The future of manufacturing companies depends largely on their ability to adapt to swiftly changing global conditions. These are exemplified by international com- tition, rapidly growing intercommunication and the increased significance of en- ronmental issues [KLOC98a, ENGE02]. Precision machining with geometrically undefined cutting edges represents a key production engineering technology with high efficiency, security and machining quality. DIN norm 8589 subsumes within the group "machining with geometrically - defined cutting edges" the following material removal manufacturing processes: grinding, honing, lapping, free abrasive grinding and abrasive blast cutting. - chining is carried out in these production methods by means of more or less - regularly formed grains composed of hard substances brought into contact with the material. Of all methods understood as machining with geometrically undefined cutting edges, only grinding, honing and lapping can, strictly speaking, be considered p- cision machining. Free abrasive grinding and abrasive blast cutting, also treated in this book, represent a special group, as they generally cannot bring about geom- rical change in the material.


Author Notes

Professor Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Fritz Klocke has been Professor of Manufacturing Engineering Technology, director of the WZL Laboratory for Machine Tools Production Engineering at the RWTH Aachen, and head of the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT in Aachen since 1995. A doctorate of honoris causa "Dr. E.h." was bestowed upon him by the University of Hannover in 2006. Professor Klocke was CIRP President from 2007 - 2008.


Table of Contents

Symbols and Abbreviationsp. XIII
1 Introductionp. 1
2 Principles of Cutting Edge Engagementp. 3
2.1 Cutting Edge Formp. 4
2.2 Cutting Edge Engagementp. 7
2.3 Distribution of Force and Energy in the Grinding Processp. 11
2.4 Grit and Bond Wearp. 14
3 Structure and Composition of Grinding Wheelsp. 17
3.1 Grit Materialp. 17
3.1.1 Natural Grit Materialsp. 17
3.1.2 Synthetic Grit Materialsp. 19
3.2 Bondsp. 37
3.2.1 Resin Bondsp. 38
3.2.2 Vitrified Bondsp. 39
3.2.3 Metallic Bondsp. 40
3.2.4 Other bondsp. 40
3.2.5 Fillers and Additivesp. 41
3.3 Tool Structure and Designationp. 42
3.3.1 Composition of Conventional Grinding Wheelsp. 43
3.3.2 The Designation of Conventional Toolsp. 45
3.3.3 Composition of Superabrasive Grinding Wheelsp. 50
3.3.4 The Designation of Superabrasive Grinding Wheelsp. 51
3.4 Tool Manufacturep. 54
3.4.1 The Manufacture of Tools with Conventional Abrasivesp. 54
3.4.2 The Manufacture of Superabrasive Grinding Wheelsp. 58
3.5 Tools Testingp. 61
3.5.1 Hardness Testingp. 62
3.5.2 Investigations in Grit Break-outp. 64
3.6 Abrasive Belts (Coated Abrasives)p. 66
3.6.1 Composition of Abrasive Beltsp. 66
3.6.2 The Manufacture and Structure of Abrasive Beltsp. 66
4 The Machinability of Various Materialsp. 73
4.1 The Concept of "Machinability" in the Grinding Processp. 73
4.2 Influencing the Material Properties of Steelsp. 74
4.2.1 Material Properties as a Function of Carbon Contentp. 74
4.2.2 The Influence of Alloying Elements on Material Propertiesp. 77
4.2.3 Material Properties as a Function of Heat Treatmentp. 79
4.3 The Structure of Various Steel Materialsp. 83
4.3.1 Case-Hardened Steelsp. 83
4.3.2 Heat-Treated Steelsp. 84
4.3.3 Nitrided Steelsp. 86
4.3.4 Roller Bearing Steelsp. 87
4.3.5 Tool Steelsp. 88
4.3.6 Non-Corrosion, Fireproof and High-Temperature Steelsp. 89
4.4 Grinding Various Structural Components in Steelsp. 91
4.5 Grinding Iron-Casting Materialsp. 92
4.6 Grinding Nickel-Based Materialsp. 94
4.6.1 Construction and Structurep. 94
4.6.2 Properties and Usesp. 96
4.6.3 Grinding Behaviour - Influences on the Grinding Processp. 96
4.7 Grinding Titanium Materialsp. 99
4.7.1 Construction and Structurep. 99
4.7.2 Properties and Usesp. 102
4.7.3 Grinding Behaviour - Influences on the Grinding Processp. 103
4.8 Grinding Brittle Materialsp. 105
4.8.1 The Machining Behaviour of Brittle Materialsp. 106
4.8.2 Machining High-Performance Ceramicsp. 107
4.8.3 Glass Machiningp. 108
4.8.4 Siliconp. 110
5 Cooling Lubricantsp. 113
5.1 Principles of Cooling Lubricants in the Grinding Processp. 113
5.1.1 General Functionsp. 113
5.1.2 The Tribological System of Grindingp. 114
5.1.3 Requirements of Cooling Lubricants in the Grinding Processp. 114
5.2 Classification, Structure and Propertiesp. 116
5.2.1 Oilsp. 116
5.2.2 Emulsionsp. 117
5.2.3 Aqueous Solutionsp. 119
5.2.4 Use of Additivesp. 119
5.3 The Influence of Cooling Lubrication on the Grinding Processp. 120
5.3.1 Cooling Lubricant Typep. 120
5.3.2 Cooling Lubricant Supplyp. 123
5.4 Supervision, Maintenance and Disposalp. 129
6 Grindingp. 135
6.1 Preparationp. 135
6.1.1 Dressing Kinematicsp. 136
6.1.2 Sharpeningp. 142
6.1.3 Further Dressing Methods - Special Methodsp. 146
6.1.4 Cleaningp. 152
6.1.5 Dressing Variables and Effective Mechanisms - The Influence of Tool Preparation on the Grinding Processp. 153
6.2 Parametersp. 161
6.3 Methodological Variants according to DIN 8589p. 177
6.3.1 Introductionp. 177
6.3.2 External Cylindrical Grindingp. 182
6.3.3 Internal Cylindrical Grindingp. 210
6.3.4 Surface Grindingp. 212
6.3.5 Coated Abrasivesp. 215
6.4 Other Variantsp. 227
6.4.1 Gear Grindingp. 227
6.4.2 Gear Honingp. 248
6.5 Process Designp. 251
6.5.1 The Influence of Variables and Parameters on the Resultp. 251
6.5.2 The Influence of the Grinding Tool on the Outputp. 269
6.5.3 Multistage Processesp. 273
6.5.4 Disturbancesp. 280
6.6 Application Examplesp. 287
6.6.1 External Cylindrical Peripheral Plunge Grindingp. 287
6.6.2 External Form Grindingp. 290
6.6.3 Internal Cylindrical Peripheral Plunge Grindingp. 293
6.6.4 Centreless Plunge Grindingp. 296
6.6.5 Surface Peripheral Plunge Grindingp. 299
7 Honingp. 302
7.1 Kinematic Principlesp. 303
7.2 Honing Tools and their Preparationp. 309
7.2.1 Honing Stones with Corundum or Silicon Carbidep. 309
7.2.2 Honing Stones with Boron Nitride and Diamondp. 309
7.3 Influences on the Process and the Work Resultp. 310
7.3.1 Input Variablesp. 310
7.3.2 Tool Shape and Specificationsp. 321
7.3.3 Workplace Structurep. 329
7.3.4 Additivesp. 331
7.4 Examples of Applicationp. 333
7.4.1 Plateau Honingp. 333
7.4.2 Gear Honing of Externally Toothed Spur Gears with an Internally Toothed Toolp. 334
7.4.3 Laser Honingp. 337
8 Lapping and Polishingp. 338
8.1 Lappingp. 338
8.1.1 Fundamentalsp. 339
8.1.2 Composition of Tools and Operational Materialsp. 347
8.1.3 Accessoriesp. 350
8.1.4 Parametersp. 351
8.1.5 Applicationsp. 354
8.2 Polishingp. 356
8.2.1 Principlesp. 357
8.2.2 Tool Construction and Compositionp. 364
8.2.3 Accessoriesp. 367
8.2.4 Parametersp. 368
9 Special Methodsp. 370
9.1 Abrasive Blast Cuttingp. 370
9.1.1 Operating Principle, Initial Process Parameters and Blast Parametersp. 370
9.1.2 Method Variations and Applicationsp. 371
9.2 Free Abrasive Grindingp. 375
9.2.1 Operating Principlep. 375
9.2.2 Method Variations and Applicationsp. 376
9.2.3 The Influence of Input Process Parameters on the Resultp. 379
9.3 Cutting with Geometrically Undefined Cutting Edgesp. 380
9.3.1 Abrasive Cuttingp. 380
9.3.2 Multi-Wire Slicing (MWS)p. 383
9.3.3 Inner Diameter Slicingp. 387
10 Process Monitoringp. 390
10.1 The Necessity of Process Monitoringp. 390
10.2 Sensors for Process Monitoringp. 392
10.2.1 Force Sensorsp. 392
10.2.2 Current Sensorsp. 393
10.2.3 AE-Sensorsp. 394
10.3 First Contact Controlp. 397
10.4 Collision Monitoringp. 400
10.5 Dressing Monitoringp. 401
10.6 Service Life Monitoring while Grinding Using AEp. 403
10.6.1 Monitoring Grinding Wheel Wear with the AE Effective Valuep. 403
10.6.2 Detecting Chatteringp. 404
10.6.3 Process Step Recognition as an Element of Reliable Monitoringp. 405
10.7 Control of Workpiece Propertiesp. 406
10.8 Reliability of Process Monitoringp. 408
Literaturep. 410
Indexp. 431