Cover image for Process improvement in the electronics industry
Title:
Process improvement in the electronics industry
Personal Author:
Series:
Wiley series in systems engineering and management
Edition:
2nd ed.
Publication Information:
Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, 2003
ISBN:
9780471209577
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PSZ JB 30000004809673 TK7836 F37 2003 Open Access Book
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PSZ JB 30000010019159 TK7836 F37 2003 Open Access Book
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Summary

Summary

A systemic approach to continuous process improvement

Process improvement is rapidly becoming one of the most significantfactors in achieving organizational success. Nearly every aspect ofan organization can gain from process improvement andinnovation-leadership and management, visioning and planning,research and development, marketing and sales, manufacturing anddistribution. Emphasizing manufacturing process improvement butcovering the human side as well, Process Improvement in theElectronics Industry, Second Edition describes a systemic approachto continuous process improvement.

This book is based on the authors' experience in development andimplementation of a comprehensive system of continuous processimprovement and innovation at AMD. The Second Edition adds valuablenew insights and information on developments since the publicationof the highly successful previous edition. Written to serve equallywell as a comprehensive guide for engineers and technicians inprocess management, and as a reference for managers in industry andgraduate students, the book explains how to develop and implementsystems for continuous process improvement in all areas of anorganization, including:
* The concepts of process improvement, process management, andsystems thinking
* Probability and statistics basics
* How to control, measure, and report on high-qualityprocesses
* Zero defects and the six sigma methodology
* On-line and off-line design of experiments
* Managing sampling systems in a low ppm environment


Including numerous case studies and suggestions for implementing aprocess control program based on the actual experiences ofmanufacturers and suppliers, Process Improvement in the ElectronicsIndustry, Second Edition remains a compellingly useful referencefor anyone charged with or interested in achieving greaterefficiency in industry, manufacturing, leadership, and other areas.


Author Notes

Yefim Fasser, PhD, is Director of Systems and Statistical Engineering at Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Donald Brettner is Group Vice President at Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Part I The Human Side of Process Improvementp. 1
1 The Concepts of Process Improvementp. 3
1.1 Process Thinkingp. 4
1.2 The Typology of Improvementp. 5
1.3 Creating Core Technological Capabilitiesp. 10
Referencesp. 19
2 Improving the Management Processp. 21
2.1 Seeing Management as a Disciplinep. 23
2.2 The Process of Visioning and Goal Settingp. 26
2.3 The Concept and Application of Situational Leadershipp. 33
2.4 The Global Team Leaderp. 38
2.5 Managing the Process of Changing Mental Modelsp. 39
Referencesp. 44
3 Systems and Systems Thinkingp. 47
3.1 What is a System?p. 48
3.2 Analytical and Systems Thinkingp. 49
3.3 The Concept of Feedbackp. 52
3.4 A Systems View of an Organizationp. 59
3.5 Tomorrow's Organizationp. 64
Referencesp. 67
4 Creativity and Innovationp. 69
4.1 Creating an Innovative Environmentp. 69
4.2 The Continual Process of Innovationp. 72
4.3 Logical or Creative Problem Solvingp. 75
4.4 The Creative Problem Solving Processp. 77
4.5 Overcoming the Barriers to Creativityp. 80
4.6 How Innovative is Your Organization?p. 81
Referencesp. 82
5 Some Basic Concepts of Variationp. 85
5.1 Understanding the Major Principles of the Theory of Variationp. 85
5.2 The Peculiarities of Managing Variation in a High Technology Enterprisep. 87
5.3 Creating a Sense of Urgencyp. 88
5.4 Taguchi's Quality Philosophyp. 90
5.5 Creating a Low ppm Environmentp. 94
5.6 Defining the Boundaries Between Low ppm and Perfectionismp. 96
5.7 Do We Need Statistical Process Control for Automated Equipment?p. 97
5.8 The Human Side of Variationp. 98
Referencesp. 101
Part II Process Control and Capability Studiesp. 103
6 Some Important Probability Distributionsp. 105
6.1 The Normal Probability Distribution (Often Called the "Normal Curve")p. 105
6.2 The Binomial Distributionp. 110
6.3 The Poisson Distributionp. 111
6.4 The Geometric Distributionp. 117
6.5 The Normal Distribution as an Approximation of the Binomial Distributionp. 118
6.6 The Poisson Distribution as an Approximation of the Binomial Distributionp. 120
Referencesp. 122
7 Statistical Process Controlp. 123
7.1 What Is a Process?p. 123
7.2 The Concept of Controlp. 124
7.3 Control Chartsp. 127
7.4 Understanding the Control Chart Signalsp. 161
7.5 Interpreting the Control Chart Patternsp. 163
7.6 Subgroup Sample Size and Frequency of Sampling When Using Control Chartsp. 174
7.7 Some New and Forgotten Older Statistical Techniquesp. 180
Referencesp. 220
8 Measurement and Inspection Capability Studiesp. 221
8.1 Concepts and Terminologyp. 221
8.2 Measurement Process Capability Studiesp. 229
8.3 Inspection Capability Studiesp. 251
Referencesp. 269
9 Process Capability Studyp. 271
9.1 Process Capabilityp. 271
9.2 The Measure of Process Capabilityp. 273
9.3 Methods and Techniques for Continuous Process Improvementp. 281
9.4 Mini Capability Checkp. 288
9.5 Using a Process Setting Chartp. 291
9.6 Tentative Process Capability Studyp. 294
9.7 Formal Process Capability Studiesp. 306
9.8 Using Attribute Data to Determine the Process Capabilityp. 322
9.9 The Seven Phases of Performing a Process Capability Studyp. 329
9.10 If the Process is Not in Control--Should We Make Capability Predictions?p. 332
9.11 How Large Should the Sample Size Be to Determine the Process Average?p. 334
Referencesp. 341
10 Working with Skewed Distributionsp. 343
10.1 Skewnessp. 344
10.2 Kurtosis as a Departure from Normalityp. 350
10.3 Achieving Symmetry by Transformationp. 352
10.4 Mirror Image Transformationp. 363
10.5 Application of the Second Application to the Normal Curvep. 366
Referencesp. 370
11 Engineering Specificationsp. 373
11.1 The Arbitrary Approach of Tolerancingp. 374
11.2 The Scientific Approach of Tolerancingp. 374
11.3 Establishing Statistical Tolerance Limitsp. 380
Referencesp. 384
12 Zero Defects Process Capabilityp. 385
12.1 What Went Wrong with the Zero Defects Program in the 1960s?p. 385
12.2 Can We Have an Excellent Process?p. 386
12.3 Motorola's Six Sigma Quality Programp. 387
12.4 Six Sigma Quality: Attribute Datap. 391
Referencesp. 394
13 Managing Sampling Systems in a Low ppm Environmentp. 397
13.1 Introductionp. 397
13.2 A Glance at Various Sampling Systems for Low ppmp. 399
13.3 A Fundamental of Sampling Systemsp. 401
13.4 The Importance of Using the c = 0 Sampling Plansp. 407
13.5 Designing a Sampling Plan for Large Lots Based on the LTPD Requirementp. 408
13.6 Reporting Process Quality Based on Sampling Resultsp. 409
13.7 Moving from Sampling Inspection to Process Controlp. 417
13.8 The Poka-Yoke (Error Proofing) Systemp. 418
Referencesp. 422
Part III Off-Line and On-Line Design of Experimentsp. 423
14 Off-Line Design of Experimentsp. 427
14.1 The Classical One-Factor-at-a-Time Experimentp. 427
14.2 Introduction to Analysis of Variancep. 431
14.3 Introduction to Factorial Experimentsp. 438
14.4 The Taguchi Approach to Quality Improvementp. 449
14.5 Nested Designp. 473
Referencesp. 483
15 On-Line Design of Experimentsp. 485
15.1 Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)p. 488
15.2 Simplex EVOPp. 520
15.3 Introducing an EVOP Programp. 529
15.4 The EVOP Educational Programp. 532
15.5 The Strategy Depends on the Objectivesp. 534
15.6 Other EVOP Techniquesp. 535
Appendix 15.1 Calculations for Two- and Three-Variable EVOP Programsp. 538
Appendix 15.2 Procedure of Locating the Coordinates of a Simplexp. 548
Appendix 15.3 EVOP Training Programp. 551
Appendix 15.4 Number of Cycles Needed to Detect a Significant Effectp. 551
Referencesp. 553
Appendixesp. 555
A The Effect of Tampering with the Processp. 555
B Factors for Constructing Control Chartsp. 559
C Area Under Normal Distribution (Z Table)p. 561
D Tables for Testing Skewness and Kurtosisp. 563
E Percentage Points of the F Distributionp. 565
F Orthogonal Arraysp. 571
G Omega Transformation Tablep. 575
H Percentage Points of the t Distributionp. 579
I Percentage Points of the x[superscript 2] Distributionp. 581
J Cumulative Poisson Distributionp. 583
K Supporting Theory for the CCC Chart and the Process Rejection Sampling Planp. 587
L Values of e[superscript -x]p. 589
M One-Sided and Two-Sided Statistical Tolerance Intervalsp. 591
N A Quick Method to Design the OC and AOQ Curves for c = 0 Sampling Plansp. 595
O np Values for Various Confidence Intervals, Probabilities of Acceptance, and Numbers of Nonconforming Unitsp. 599
Glossaryp. 603
Indexp. 627