Cover image for Biomimetic robotics : mechanisms and control
Title:
Biomimetic robotics : mechanisms and control
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, 2009
Physical Description:
xvi, 343 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
ISBN:
9780521895941
Subject Term:

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PSZ JB 30000010193078 TJ211 V47 2009 Open Access Book
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PSZ KL 30000010250222 TJ211 V47 2009 Open Access Book Book
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Summary

Summary

This book is written as an initial course in robotics. It is ideal for study of unmanned aerial or underwater vehicles, a topic on which few books exist. It presents the fundamentals of robotics, from an aerospace perspective, by considering only the field of robot mechanisms. For an aerospace engineer, three dimensional and parallel mechanisms - flight simulation, unmanned aerial vehicles, and space robotics - take on an added significance. Biomimetic robot mechanisms are fundamental to manipulators, walking, mobile, and flying robots. As a distinguishing feature, this book gives a unified and integrated treatment of biomimetic robot mechanisms. It is ideal preparation for the next robotics module: practical robot control design. While the book focuses on principles, computational procedures are also given due importance. Students are encouraged to use computational tools to solve the examples in the exercises. The author has included some additional topics for the enthusiastic reader to explore.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acronymsp. xv
1 The Robotp. 1
1.1 Robotics: An Introductionp. 1
1.2 Robot-Manipulator Fundamentals and Componentsp. 5
1.3 From Kinematic Pairs to the Kinematics of Mechanismsp. 12
1.4 Novel Mechanismsp. 13
1.4.1 Rack-and-Pinion Mechanismp. 14
1.4.2 Pawl-and-Ratchet Mechanismp. 14
1.4.3 Pantographp. 15
1.4.4 Quick-Return Mechanismsp. 15
1.4.5 Ackermann Steering Gearp. 16
1.4.6 Sun and Planet Epicyclic Gear Trainp. 17
1.4.7 Universal Jointsp. 17
1.5 Spatial Mechanisms and Manipulatorsp. 18
1.6 Meet Professor da Vinci the Surgeon, PUMA, and SCARAp. 20
1.7 Back to the Futurep. 23
Exercisesp. 24
2 Biomimetic Mechanismsp. 25
2.1 Introductionp. 25
2.2 Principles of Legged Locomotionp. 27
2.2.1 Inchworm Locomotionp. 29
2.2.2 Walking Machinesp. 30
2.2.3 Autonomous Footstep Planningp. 31
2.3 Imitating Animalsp. 31
2.3.1 Principles of Bird Flightp. 33
2.3.2 Mechanisms based on Bird Flightp. 34
2.3.3 Swimming Like a Fishp. 37
2.4 Biomimetic Sensors and Actuatorsp. 39
2.4.1 Action Potentialsp. 43
2.4.2 Measurement and Control of Cellular Action Potentialsp. 46
2.4.3 Bionic Limbs: Interfacing Artificial Limbs to Living Cellsp. 47
2.4.4 Artificial Muscles: Flexible Muscular Motorsp. 51
2.4.5 Prosthetic Control of Artificial Musclesp. 53
2.5 Applications in Computer-Aided Surgery and Manufacturep. 55
2.5.1 Steady Hands: Active Tremor Compensationp. 56
2.5.2 Design of Scalable Robotic Surgical Devicesp. 58
2.5.3 Robotic Needle Placement and Two-Hand Suturingp. 60
Exercisesp. 61
3 Homogeneous Transformations and Screw Motionsp. 62
3.1 General Rigid Motions in Two Dimensionsp. 62
3.1.1 Instantaneous Centers of Rotationp. 64
3.2 Rigid Body Motions in Three Dimensions: Definition of Posep. 64
3.2.1 Homogeneous Coordinates: Transformations of Position and Orientationp. 65
3.3 General Motions of Rigid Frames in Three Dimensions: Frames with Posep. 66
3.3.1 The Denavit-Hartenberg Decompositionp. 66
3.3.2 Instantaneous Axis of Screw Motionp. 67
3.3.3 A Screw from a Twistp. 69
Exercisesp. 70
4 Direct Kinematics of Serial Robot Manipulatorsp. 74
4.1 Definition of Direct or Forward Kinematicsp. 74
4.2 The Denavit-Hartenberg Conventionp. 74
4.3 Planar Anthropomorphic Manipulatorsp. 76
4.4 Planar Nonanthropomorphic Manipulatorsp. 78
4.5 Kinematics of Wristsp. 80
4.6 Direct Kinematics of Two Industrial Manipulatorsp. 81
Exercisesp. 86
5 Manipulators with Multiple Postures and Compositionsp. 89
5.1 Inverse Kinematics of Robot Manipulatorsp. 89
5.1.1 The Nature of Inverse Kinematics: Posturesp. 91
5.1.2 Some Practical Examplesp. 95
5.2 Parallel Manipulators: Compositionsp. 99
5.2.1 Parallel Spatial Manipulators: The Stewart Platformp. 101
5.3 Workspace of a Manipulatorp. 105
Exercises

p. 107

6 Grasping: Mechanics and Constraintsp. 111
6.1 Forces and Momentsp. 111
6.2 Definition of a Wrenchp. 112
6.3 Mechanics of Grippingp. 112
6.4 Transformation of Forces and Momentsp. 114
6.5 Compliancep. 115
6.5.1 Passive and Active Compliancep. 116
6.5.2 Constraints: Natural and Artificialp. 116
6.5.3 Hybrid Controlp. 117
Exercises

p. 118

7 Jacobiansp. 120
7.1 Differential Motionp. 120
7.1.1 Velocity Kinematicsp. 123
7.1.2 Translational Velocities and Accelerationp. 124
7.1.3 Angular Velocitiesp. 127
7.2 Definition of a Screw Vector: Instantaneous Screwsp. 127
7.2.1 Duality with the Wrenchp. 129
7.2.2 Transformation of a Compliant Body Wrenchp. 130
7.3 The Jacobian and the Inverse Jacobianp. 131
7.3.1 The Mobility Criterion: Over constrained Mechanismsp. 133
7.3.2 Singularities: Physical Interpretationp. 134
7.3.3 Manipulability: Putting Redundant Mechanisms to Workp. 136
7.3.4 Computing the Inverse Kinematics: The Lyapunov Approachp. 137
Exercisesp. 140
8 Newtonian, Eulerian, and Lagrangian Dynamicsp. 142
8.1 Newtonian and Eulerian Mechanicsp. 142
8.1.1 Kinetics of Screw Motion: The Newton-Euler Equationsp. 145
8.1.2 Moments of Inertiap. 146
8.1.3 Dynamics of a Link's Moment of Inertiap. 147
8.1.4 Recursive Form of the Newton-Euler Equationsp. 149
8.2 Lagrangian Dynamics of Manipulatorsp. 152
8.2.1 Forward and Inverse Dynamicsp. 154
8.3 The Principle of Virtual Workp. 156
Exercisesp. 158
9 Path Planning, Obstacle Avoidance, and Navigationp. 164
9.1 Fundamentals of Trajectory Followingp. 164
9.1.1 Path Planning: Trajectory Generationp. 165
9.1.2 Splines, Bezier Curves, and Bernstein Polynomialsp. 167
9.2 Dynamic Path Planningp. 172
9.3 Obstacle Avoidancep. 174
9.4 Inertial Measuring and Principles of Position and Orientation Fixingp. 180
9.4.1 Gyro-Free Inertial Measuring Unitsp. 188
9.4.2 Error Dynamics of Position and Orientationp. 189
Exercisesp. 193
10 Hamiltonian Systems and Feedback Linearizationp. 198
10.1 Dynamical Systems of the Liouville Typep. 198
10.1.1 Hamilton's Equations of Motionp. 199
10.1.2 Passivity of Hamiltonian Dynamicsp. 202
10.1.3 Hamilton's Principlep. 203
10.2 Contact Transformationp. 204
10.2.1 Hamilton-Jacobi Theoryp. 205
10.2.2 Significance of the Hamiltonian Representationsp. 206
10.3 Canonical Representations of the Dynamicsp. 207
10.3.1 Lie Algebrasp. 208
10.3.2 Feedback Linearizationp. 210
10.3.3 Partial State-Feedback Linearizationp. 213
10.3.4 Involutive Transformationsp. 214
10.4 Applications of Feedback Linearizationp. 215
10.5 Optimal Control of Hamiltonian and Near-Hamiltonian Systemsp. 223
10.6 Dynamics of Nonholonomic Systemsp. 225
10.6.1 The Bicyclep. 228
Exercisesp. 236
11 Robot Controlp. 242
11.1 Introductionp. 242
11.1.1 Adaptive and Model-Based Controlp. 242
11.1.2 Taxonomies of Control Strategiesp. 252
11.1.3 Human-Centered Control Methodsp. 252
11.1.4 Robot-Control Tasksp. 257
11.1.5 Robot-Control Implementationsp. 258
11.1.6 Controller Partitioning and Feedforwardp. 259
11.1.7 Independent Joint Controlp. 260
11.2 HAL, Do You Understand JAVA?p. 261
11.3 Robot Sensing and Perceptionp. 263
Exercisesp. 269
12 Biomimetic Motive Propulsionp. 272
12.1 Introductionp. 272
12.2 Dynamics and Balance of Walking Biped Robotsp. 272
12.2.1 Dynamic Model for Walkingp. 272
12.2.2 Dynamic Balance during Walking: The Zero-Moment Pointp. 277
12.2.3 Half-Model for a Quadruped Robot: Dynamics and Controlp. 279
12.3 Modeling Bird Flight: Robot Manipulators in Free Flightp. 281
12.3.1 Dynamics of a Free-Flying Space Robotp. 282
12.3.2 Controlling a Free-Flying Space Robotp. 284
12.4 Flapping Propulsion of Aerial Vehiclesp. 285
12.4.1 Unsteady Aerodynamics of an Aerofoilp. 287
12.4.2 Generation of Thrustp. 294
12.4.3 Controlled Flapping for Flight Vehiclesp. 299
12.5 Underwater Propulsion and Its Controlp. 301
Exercisesp. 304
Answers to Selected Exercisesp. 309
Appendix: Attitude and Quaternionsp. 317
Bibliographyp. 335
Indexp. 339