Cover image for Changeable and reconfigurable manufacturing systems
Title:
Changeable and reconfigurable manufacturing systems
Series:
Springer series in advanced manufacturing
Publication Information:
Berlin : Springer, 2009
Physical Description:
xxix, 405 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN:
9781848820661
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Item Category 1
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PSZ JB 30000010193946 TS183 C434 2009 Open Access Book Book
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Summary

Summary

"Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems" discusses key strategies for success in the changing manufacturing environment. Changes can often be anticipated but some go beyond the design range, requiring innovative change enablers and adaptation mechanisms. The book presents the new concept of Changeability as an umbrella framework that encompasses paradigms such as agility, adaptability, flexibility and reconfigurability. It provides the definitions and classification of key terms in this new field, and emphasizes the required physical/hard and logical/soft change enablers. The book presents cutting edge technologies and the latest research, as well as future directions to help manufacturers stay competitive. It contains original contributions and results from senior international experts, together with industrial applications. The book serves as a comprehensive reference for professional engineers, managers, and academics in manufacturing, industrial and mechanical engineering.


Author Notes

Hoda A. ElMaraghy, Ph.D., P.Eng., is currently Canada Research Chair in Manufacturing Systems, Professor of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Director of the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Centre at the University of Windsor. She is a Fellow of the Canadian Society of Mechanical Engineers (CSME), Fellow of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), Fellow of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP), Member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and an International Director for the American Society for Manufacturing Engineers. Her teaching and research interests are in manufacturing systems design, modeling, flexibility, reconfiguration, control, quality, inspection, assembly, process planning and robotics. Prof. ElMaraghy is one of the pioneering researchers who contributed to the introduction of technologies such as flexible manufacturing and reconfigurable manufacturing, as well as changeable manufacturing. She has acted as a consultant to industry internationally where the results of her research were used to improve the productivity and competitiveness of many manufacturers.


Table of Contents

H. ElMaraghy and H.-P. WiendahlH.A. ElMaraghyW. Terkaj and T. Tolio and A. ValenteG. Pritschow and K-H. Wurst and C. Kircher and M. SeyfarthM. Mori and M. FujishimaE. Abele and A. WornB. Lotter and H-P. WiendahlA.M. Djuric and W.H. ElMaraghyY. Cao and H. ElMaraghy and W. ElMaraghyA. Azab and H. ElMaraghy and S.N. SamyH-H. WiendahlM.A. Ismail and H.A. ElMaraghyA. Deif and H. ElMaraghyG. Schuh and M. Lenders and C. Nussbaum and D. KupkeT. AlGeddawy and H. ElMaraghyR. Hedrick and J. UrbanicO. Kuzgunkaya and H.A. ElMaraghyW.H. ElMaraghy and K.T. MeselhyA.W. Labib and M.N. YuniartoM.F. Zäh and M. Beetz and K. Shea and G. Reinhart and K. Bender and C. Lau and M. Ostgathe and W. Vogl and M. Wiesbeck and M. Engelhard and C. Ertelt and T. Rühr and M. Friedrich and S. HerleT.P. MeichsnerJ. Reichardt and H-P. Wiendahl
Part I Definitions and Strategies
1 Changeability - An Introductionp. 3
1.1 Motivationp. 3
1.2 Evolution of Factoriesp. 7
1.3 Deriving the Objects of Changeabilityp. 8
1.4 Elements of Changeable Manufacturingp. 10
1.5 Factory Levelsp. 11
1.6 Changeability Classesp. 12
1.7 Changeability Objectivesp. 13
1.7.1 Manufacturing Levelp. 14
1.7.2 Assembly Levelp. 14
1.7.3 Factory Levelp. 15
1.8 Changeability Enablersp. 15
1.8.1 Manufacturing Levelp. 16
1.8.2 Assembly Levelp. 17
1.8.3 Factory Levelp. 17
1.8.4 Reconfigurable Process Planning Levelp. 18
1.8.5 Production Planning and Control Levelp. 19
1.9 Changeability Processp. 19
1.10 Conclusionp. 22
Referencesp. 23
2 Changing and Evolving Products and Systems - Models and Enablersp. 25
2.1 Introduction and Motivationp. 26
2.2 The Hierarchy of Parts and Products Variantsp. 27
2.3 Evolving and Dynamic Parts and Products Familiesp. 32
2.4 Modeling Products Evolution - A Biological Analogyp. 34
2.5 Design of Assembly Systems for Delayed Differentiation of Changing and Evolving Productsp. 35
2.6 Process Planning - The Link Between Varying Products and their Manufacturing Systemsp. 37
2.6.1 Existing Process Planning Conceptsp. 37
2.6.2 Process Plans Changeabilityp. 38
2.6.3 Reconfiguring Process Plans (RPP) and Its Significancep. 40
2.6.4 Process Planning for Reconfigurable Machinesp. 41
2.7 Discussion and Conclusionsp. 42
Referencesp. 44
3 Focused Flexibility in Production Systemsp. 47
3.1 The Importance of Manufacturing Flexibility in Uncertain Production Contextsp. 47
3.1.1 Focused Flexibility Manufacturing Systems - FFMSsp. 48
3.2 Literature Reviewp. 50
3.3 Proposal of an Ontology on Flexibilityp. 51
3.4 Analysis of Real Systemsp. 55
3.4.1 Lajous Industries SA Case Studyp. 55
3.4.2 Riello Sistemi Case Studyp. 58
3.5 Using the Ontology on Flexibility to Support System Designp. 60
3.6 Conclusions and Future Developmentsp. 63
Referencesp. 64
Part II Physical Enablers
4 Control of Reconfigurable Machine Toolsp. 71
4.1 Introductionp. 71
4.1.1 Basic Idea for Reconfigurable Machine Tools and Systemsp. 72
4.1.2 Initial Situation in Machining Systems and Machine Toolsp. 72
4.2 State of the Artp. 75
4.3 Configurable and Reconfigurable Machine Toolsp. 77
4.3.1 Development of (Re)configurable Machine Toolsp. 77
4.3.2 Conception of a Reconfigurable Machine Toolp. 80
4.4 Field Bus Systems Requirementsp. 81
4.5 Configurable Control Systemsp. 83
4.5.1 Middle-Warep. 84
4.5.2 Configurationp. 85
4.5.3 Adjustment Mechanisms for Control Systemsp. 85
4.5.4 Configuration Procedurep. 87
4.5.5 Development of a Control Configuration Toolp. 90
4.5.6 Configuration of a Control System by an Expertp. 90
4.6 Self-Adapting Control System for RMSp. 91
4.6.1 Elements of a Self-Adapting Control Systemp. 91
4.6.2 Extensions of Self-Adapting Control Systemsp. 92
4.6.3 Method for Reconfiguration of the Self-Adaptable Control Systemp. 96
4.7 Summary and Conclusionsp. 98
Referencesp. 99
5 Reconfigurable Machine Tools for a Flexible Manufacturing Systemp. 101
5.1 Introductionp. 101
5.2 Reconfigurable Machine Tools Developmentp. 102
5.3 Application Examplesp. 107
5.4 Summaryp. 109
Referencesp. 109
6 Reconfigurable Machine Tools and Equipmentp. 111
6.1 Introductionp. 111
6.2 Flexibility Requirementsp. 113
6.3 Reconfigurable Multi-Technology Machine Tool (RMM)p. 116
6.3.1 Machine Tool Designp. 116
6.3.2 Modulesp. 117
6.3.3 System Interfacesp. 121
6.3.4 Expert Tool for System Configurationp. 122
6.4 Summaryp. 124
Referencesp. 124
7 Changeable and Reconfigurable Assembly Systemsp. 127
7.1 Introductionp. 127
7.2 Flexible Manual Assembly Systemsp. 129
7.2.1 Single Station Assembly with Set-Wise Assembly Flowp. 130
7.2.2 Single Station Assembly According to the One-Piece-Flow Principlep. 131
7.2.3 Multi-Station Assembly According to the One-Piece-Flow Principlep. 132
7.3 Flexible Automated Systemsp. 134
7.4 Hybrid Assembly Systemsp. 136
7.4.1 Characteristicsp. 136
7.4.2 Example of a Hybrid Assembly Systemp. 136
7.4.3 Analysis of the Results for Automated and Hybrid Assembliesp. 140
7.5 Conclusionp. 141
Referencesp. 141
Part III Logical Enablers
8 Unified Dynamic and Control Models for Reconfigurable Robotsp. 147
8.1 Design of Reconfigurable Modules for the Reconfigurable Robotics, Automation and Intelligent Systems Industryp. 147
8.1.1 Description of a Robot Modelp. 148
8.1.2 Reconfigurable Aspects of Industrial Robotic Systemsp. 148
8.1.3 Reconfigurable Kinematic and Dynamic Modulesp. 149
8.2 Design of Reconfigurable Control Platform (RCP)p. 152
8.2.1 DC Motor Reconfigurable Position Control Designp. 152
8.3 Design of Reconfigurable Robot Platform (RRP)p. 157
8.4 Reverse Modeling of Reconfigurable Robot Meta-Modelp. 158
8.5 Conclusionsp. 159
Referencesp. 160
9 Reconfigurable Control of Constrained Flexible Joint Robots Interacting with Dynamic and Changeable Environmentp. 163
9.1 Introductionp. 163
9.2 Dynamic Model of Flexible Joint Robot in Contact with Different Environmentp. 166
9.3 Decoupled Controller Designp. 167
9.3.1 Contact with Rigid Surfacep. 167
9.3.2 Contact with Stiff Environmentp. 169
9.3.3 Contact with Dynamic Environmentp. 169
9.4 Reconfigurable Control Schemep. 171
9.5 Simulation Studyp. 172
Referencesp. 176
10 Reconfiguring Process Plans: A New Approach to Minimize Changep. 179
10.1 Introductionp. 180
10.2 Related Workp. 181
10.3 Conceptual Basisp. 183
10.4 Mathematical Modeling and Programmingp. 184
10.5 A New Criterion in Process Planningp. 186
10.6 Computational Time Complexityp. 187
10.7 Application and Verificationp. 187
10.7.1 Reconfigurable Assembly Planning of a Family of Household Productsp. 187
10.7.2 Reconfigurable Process Planning for Machining of a Front Engine Cover Part Familyp. 190
10.7.3 Concluding Remarksp. 192
10.8 Summaryp. 192
Referencesp. 193
11 Adaptive Production Planning and Control - Elements and Enablers of Changeabilityp. 197
11.1 Introductionp. 197
11.2 The PPC Frameworkp. 199
11.2.1 Design Aspects of a Socio-Technical PPC Systemp. 200
11.2.2 PPC Design Matrixp. 201
11.3 Changeability of PPC Toolsp. 202
11.3.1 Change Elements of PPCp. 203
11.3.2 Enablers of PPC Changeabilityp. 203
11.3.3 Building Blocks of PPC Changeabilityp. 204
11.4 Adaptive PPC Solutionsp. 204
11.4.1 Functional Modelsp. 205
11.4.2 Planning and Control Methodsp. 206
11.4.3 Data Modelsp. 207
11.4.4 Data Interfacesp. 208
11.5 Change Process in PPCp. 209
11.6 Summary and Further Researchp. 210
Referencesp. 211
12 Component Oriented Design of Change-Ready MPC Systemsp. 213
12.1 Introductionp. 213
12.2 Related Reviewp. 215
12.3 The New MPC System Characteristicsp. 216
12.3.1 Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE)p. 218
12.3.2 Component-Oriented Versus Object-Oriented Programmingp. 219
12.4 Mini-Case Study: Component-Based Aggregate Production Planning System Frameworkp. 219
12.4.1 System Architecturep. 219
12.4.2 Change-Ready MPC Frameworkp. 220
12.5 Discussion and Conclusionsp. 224
Referencesp. 225
13 Dynamic Capacity Planning and Modeling Its Complexityp. 227
13.1 Introductionp. 227
13.1.1 The Dynamic Capacity Problemp. 227
13.1.2 Complexity vs. Uncertaintyp. 228
13.1.3 Complexity in Dynamic Capacity Planningp. 229
13.2 Literature Reviewp. 229
13.3 System Dynamic Model for Multi-Stage Productionp. 231
13.3.1 Multi Stage Production Systemp. 231
13.3.2 Model Nomenclaturep. 232
13.3.3 Mathematical Modelp. 233
13.4 Numerical Simulation of Industrial Case Studyp. 236
13.4.1 Overview of the Multi-Stage Engine Block Production Linep. 236
13.4.2 Input Datap. 236
13.4.3 Numerical Simulation Resultsp. 238
13.5 Conclusionsp. 243
Referencesp. 244
Part IV Managing and Justifying Change in Manufacturing
14 Design for Changeabilityp. 251
14.1 Production Trends in High-Wage Countriesp. 252
14.2 Introduction of a Target System for Complex Production Systemsp. 253
14.2.1 Holistic Definition of Production Systemsp. 253
14.2.2 Target System for Complex Production Systemsp. 254
14.2.3 Differentiation Between Complicated Systems and Complex Systemsp. 256
14.3 Approach to Mastering Complexity in Production Systemsp. 257
14.3.1 Object-Oriented Designp. 257
14.3.2 Object-Oriented Management of Production Systemsp. 258
14.4 Case Studiesp. 261
14.4.1 A: Object-Oriented Production Designp. 262
14.4.2 B: Release-Engineering in the Automotive Industryp. 263
14.5 Summaryp. 265
Referencesp. 266
15 Changeability Effect on Manufacturing Systems Designp. 267
15.1 Introductionp. 267
15.2 Synthesis of Manufacturing Systemsp. 268
15.2.1 Enabling Changeability in Systems Frameworksp. 268
15.2.2 Effect of Changeability Enablers on the Factory Level Designp. 271
15.2.3 Changeability Effect on Machine Level Designp. 273
15.2.4 Product Design Directionsp. 274
15.3 Changeability Integration into the Design Processp. 276
15.3.1 The System-Product Changeability Design Loopp. 276
15.3.2 Biological Evolution/Co-Evolution Analogyp. 278
15.4 Final Remarksp. 279
Referencesp. 280
16 Managing Change and Reconfigurations of CNC Machine Toolsp. 285
16.1 Introductionp. 285
16.1.1 Reconfiguration Considerationsp. 287
16.2 The Change or Reconfiguration Management Methodologyp. 289
16.3 Pneumatic Flow Control Valve Case Studyp. 294
16.4 Summary and Conclusionsp. 299
Referencesp. 300
17 Economic and Strategic Justification of Changeable, Reconfigurable and Flexible Manufacturingp. 303
17.1 Introductionp. 303
17.2 Literature Reviewp. 304
17.3 Proposed RMS Justification Modelp. 305
17.3.1 Financial Objectivep. 308
17.3.2 System Complexityp. 309
17.3.3 System Responsivenessp. 310
17.3.4 Overall Modelp. 310
17.4 Illustrative Examplep. 313
17.4.1 Comparison of Reconfigurable and Flexible Scenarios over the System Life Cyclep. 315
17.4.2 FMS and RMS Comparison Through Life-Cycle Simulationp. 317
17.5 Conclusionsp. 318
Referencesp. 319
18 Quality and Maintainability Frameworks for Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturingp. 321
18.1 Introductionp. 322
18.2 Quality and the Manufacturing System Designp. 322
18.3 Changeable Manufacturing and Qualityp. 325
18.4 Effect of Reconfigurable Manufacturing System Design on Qualityp. 328
18.5 The Changeability and Maintainability Relationshipp. 330
18.6 Conclusionp. 333
Referencesp. 334
19 Maintenance Strategies for Changeable Manufacturingp. 337
19.1 Introductionp. 337
19.2 Recent Developmentsp. 338
19.3 Current Research and Trendsp. 338
19.3.1 Model of Integration Between Intelligent Manufacturing Control System and Intelligent Maintenance Systemp. 339
19.3.2 Fuzzy Logic Controller I and II (FLCI and II)p. 341
19.3.3 Fuzzy Maintenance and Decision Making Gridp. 344
19.4 Case Studyp. 348
19.5 Conclusions and Future Researchp. 349
Referencesp. 350
Part V Future Directions
20 The Cognitive Factoryp. 355
20.1 Introductionp. 356
20.2 Intelligence in Automated Systemsp. 356
20.3 Cognitive Technical Systemsp. 359
20.4 The Cognitive Factoryp. 360
20.4.1 Vision and Goalsp. 360
20.4.2 Core Aspects to Achieve the Cognitive Factoryp. 362
20.5 Summary and Outlookp. 368
Referencesp. 369
21 Migration Manufacturing - A New Concept for Automotive Body Productionp. 373
21.1 Initial Situationp. 373
21.2 Development of the Basic Conceptp. 376
21.3 Operating Phases of the Migration Conceptp. 380
21.4 Practical Evaluation and Implementationp. 382
21.5 Conclusion and Outlookp. 385
Referencesp. 387
22 Changeable Factory Buildings - An Architectural Viewp. 389
22.1.1 The Factory Planners Viewp. 390
22.1.2 The Challenge: Multi-User, Changeable and Scalable Buildingsp. 392
22.2 Performance and Constituent Components of Factory Buildingsp. 394
22.2.1 Form Follows Performancep. 394
22.2.2 Building Componentsp. 395
22.3 Synergetic Planning of Processes, Logistics and Buildingsp. 397
22.4 Industrial Example of a Transformable Factoryp. 398
22.5 Conclusionp. 400
Referencesp. 401
Indexp. 403