Cover image for Carving out a future : forests, livelihoods and the international woodcarving trade
Carving out a future : forests, livelihoods and the international woodcarving trade
People and plants conservation series
Publication Information:
London : Earthscan, 2005


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PSZ JB 30000010149480 HD9774.W652 C37 2005 Open Access Book

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Very little has yet been written about the cultural or economic contributions of woodcarving to people's livelihoods or the consequences of felling hardwood and softwood trees for the international woodcarving trade. Carving Out a Future is the first examination of this trade and its critical links to rural livelihoods, biodiversity, conservation, forestry and the international trade regime. A range of case studies from Australia, Bali, India,Africa and Mexico provides a lens for examining the critical issues relating to the significant impacts of woodcarving on forests, conservation efforts, the need to promote sustainable rural livelihoods and efforts to promote trade so that skilled artisans in developing countries get a fair economic return.Livelihoods, Carving and Conservation * Global Overview * The Case of Woodcarving in Kenya * Drums and Hornbills * Sculpture and Identity * Carving Wood in Southern Zimbabwe * The Kiaat Woodcrafters of Bushbuckridge, South Africa * Carvers, Conservation and Certification in India * Colour, Sustainability and Market Sense in Bali * Aboriginal Woodcarvers in Australia * BurseraWoodcarving in Oaxaca, Mexico * Linaloe Wood Handicrafts * Learning from a Comparison of Cases * Carving, Sustainability and Scarcity * Certification of Woodcarving * Planning for Woodcarving in the 21st Century *

Author Notes

Anthony Cunningham is an ethnobotanist working at Charles Darwin University in Western Australia. He is also Director of People and Plants International. Brian Belcher is Principal Scientist for the Forests and Livelihoods programme at the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia.Bruce Campbell conducts research on conservation and development issues for both Charles Darwin University and CIFOR.

Table of Contents

Brian Belcher and Anthony Cunningham and Bruce CampbellAnthony CunninghamSimon K. Choge and Anthony Cunningham and William ElleryPatrick Omeja and Anthony Cunningham and Joseph ObuaZachary KingdonWavell Standa-Gunda and Oliver BraedtSheona E. ShackletonSudipto Chatterjee and Manish Pande and Govinda Pangging and Gitika GoswamiDede Rohadi and Pipin Permadi and Syarif HidayatJennifer Koenig and Jon C. Altman and Anthony D. GriffithsSilvia E. Purata and Michael Chibnik and Berry J. Brosi and Ana Maria LopezPaul Hersch-Martinez and Robert GlassBrian Belcher and Ramadhani AchdiawanAnthony Cunningham and Bruce Campbell and Brian Belcher and Ramadhani AchdiawanSusanne F. Schmitt and David R. MaingiBruce Campbell and Anthony Cunningham and Brian Belcher
List of Figures, Tables and Boxesp. ix
List of Contributorsp. xvi
Acknowledgementsp. xix
List of Acronyms and Abbreviationsp. xxi
1 Livelihoods, Carving and Conservationp. 1
Introductionp. 1
History, culture and traditionp. 2
Woodcarving: Big business and petty tradep. 3
Attention to livelihoodsp. 4
Learning from experiencep. 5
Wood supply and conservationp. 6
Carving out a futurep. 9
2 Global Overview: Tradition, Technology and Tradep. 11
Introductionp. 11
Carvers' preferences: Wood properties and productsp. 13
Regional differences and distinctivenessp. 16
Change, innovation and commercializationp. 23
Future trendsp. 27
3 Chasing the Wooden Rhino: The Case of Woodcarving in Kenyap. 31
Introductionp. 31
History of woodcarvingp. 32
Carving in the context of other Kenyan wood marketsp. 35
Woodcarving: Supply of raw materialsp. 35
Wood processing and carvingp. 36
Successful trade, declining resource basep. 38
Forestry policy and commercial woodcarvingp. 40
4 Drums and Hornbillsp. 43
Introductionp. 43
History of drum-makingp. 43
Species selection and volumes usedp. 45
Tree abundance and size-class distributionp. 46
Supply and demandp. 50
Ecosystem and socio-cultural implications of resource depletionp. 51
Management implicationsp. 52
5 Sculpture and Identity: The Makonde African Blackwood Carving Movementp. 53
Introductionp. 53
The development of the Makonde African blackwood carving movementp. 54
The importance of patronage: The case of Mohamed Peerap. 57
Blackwood sculpting and identityp. 60
African blackwood and identityp. 63
Conclusionsp. 65
6 Fallbacks and Tourist Traps: Carving Wood in Southern Zimbabwep. 67
Introductionp. 67
Chivi study areap. 68
Characteristics of the woodcraft marketsp. 69
The policy environmentp. 76
Conservation and development lessonsp. 78
7 Bowls, Spoons and Other Useful Items: The Kiaat Woodcrafters of Bushbuckridge, South Africap. 81
Introductionp. 81
Geographic and socio-economic setting of the casep. 82
The Bushbuckridge woodcraft industry in contextp. 84
Wood sources, access and characteristics of the resource basep. 87
Processing industryp. 95
Trade and marketsp. 99
The way forwardp. 101
8 Carvers, Conservation and Certification in Indiap. 103
Introductionp. 103
Diversity of products and scale of productionp. 104
Growth and limits to growthp. 108
Logs and livelihoodsp. 109
Resource and forestry policy implications: No wood, no workp. 110
Alternative supply sourcesp. 113
State and United Nations support in policy and practicep. 115
Conclusionsp. 119
9 Colour, Sustainability and Market Sense in Balip. 121
Introductionp. 121
Historical backgroundp. 121
Trends in wood species usedp. 123
Impacts on regional development and livelihoodsp. 126
Support for the development of the woodcarving industryp. 130
Conclusionsp. 132
10 'Too Many Trees!': Aboriginal Woodcarvers in Australiap. 135
Introductionp. 135
Aboriginal woodcarvingp. 136
Aboriginal art industry in Australiap. 138
Aboriginal woodcarvers in Maningrida, central Arnhem Landp. 140
Future directionsp. 145
11 Fantasy Figures: Bursera Woodcarving in Oaxaca, Mexicop. 147
Introductionp. 147
History of carvingp. 148
The resource basep. 150
Harvestersp. 152
Carvers and carvingp. 154
Trends and prospectsp. 157
12 Linaloe Wood Handicrafts: Natural and Social Witnessesp. 161
Introductionp. 161
Historyp. 162
Natural resources and conflicting usesp. 163
The production processp. 165
Tradep. 170
Contribution of linaloe craftsmanship to household incomep. 171
Trendsp. 171
13 Getting Out of the Woods: Learning from a Comparison of Casesp. 175
Introductionp. 175
The case comparison: Methodsp. 176
The woodcarving casesp. 177
Comparison with other NTFPsp. 179
Role of NTFPs in household economiesp. 186
Organization in the processing sectorp. 188
Investing in the woodcarving sectorp. 189
Conclusionsp. 195
14 Ecological Footprints: Carving, Sustainability and Scarcityp. 199
Introductionp. 199
Focal families and generap. 201
Context and carving woods: Multiple reasons for scarcityp. 207
Predicting carver responses to wood scarcityp. 209
Resource managers and conservationists: What's your worst nightmare?p. 214
Beyond trees: 'Ecological footprints' and wildlifep. 220
The transition from wild harvest to tree cultivationp. 224
Conclusionsp. 227
15 Certification of Woodcarvingp. 229
Introductionp. 229
What is certification and what can it do for woodcarving?p. 229
Certifying Kenyan woodcarvingsp. 234
Overcoming the constraints to certifying Kenyan woodcarvingsp. 238
Conclusionsp. 246
16 Carving Out a Future: Planning for Woodcarving in the 21st Centuryp. 249
Introductionp. 249
Why woodcarving is importantp. 249
What needs to be done: Towards best practicep. 256
What needs to be done: Towards more enabling policies and strategiesp. 261
Conclusionsp. 268
Referencesp. 271
Indexp. 287