Cover image for Chemistry in the community
Title:
Chemistry in the community
Edition:
5th ed.
Publication Information:
New York, NY : W. H. Freeman, 2006
ISBN:
9780716789192
Added Corporate Author:

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Item Category 1
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PSZ JB 30000010124035 TD193 C434 2006 Open Access Book
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Summary

Summary

W. H. Freeman, a recognized leader in scientific publishing, and the American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society, are proud to announce the exciting new Fifth Edition of the classic high school chemistry text, Chemistry in the Community.

What is ChemCom?
Designed for a year-long high school chemistry course geared for college-bound students, ChemCom covers traditional chemistry topics with coverage organized around societal issues. With this program, students learn more organic and biochemistry as well as environmental and industrial chemistry. The text is 50% laboratory-based, with lab activities are fully integrated within context, not separate from the reading. ChemCom features decision-making activities to give students practice in applying their chemistry knowledge in various problem-solving situations. This text clearly addresses the fundamental concepts and principles found in the National Science Education Standards. Correlations are available showing how closely aligned ChemCom is to these and other state standards.

The seven units of study in ChemCom cover the topics:
1. Water
2. Materials
3. Petroleum
4. Air
5. Industry
6. Atoms
7. Food


Author Notes

The AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY is a self-governed individual membership organization that consists of more than 158,000 members at all degree levels and in all fields of chemistry. The programmes and activities conducted by ACS today are the products of a tradition of excellence in meeting member needs that dates from the Society's founding in 1876.


Table of Contents

Welcome to Chemistry in the Communityp. xix
Prefacep. xxi
ChemCom Mediap. 1
Unit 1 Water: Exploring Solutionsp. 2
Section A Sources and Uses of Waterp. 7
A.1 Town in Crisisp. 7
ChemQuandary 1 Water, Water Everywherep. 8
A.2 Making Decisions Uses of Waterp. 8
A.3 Investigating Matter Foul Waterp. 10
A.4 Water Supply and Demandp. 15
A.5 Developing Skills Water Use in the United Statesp. 17
A.6 Where is the World's Water?p. 18
A.7 Making Decisions Water-Use Analysisp. 20
A.8 Making Decisions Riverwood Water Usep. 22
Section A Summaryp. 23
Section B Looking at Water and its Contaminantsp. 25
B.1 Physical Properties of Waterp. 26
B.2 Developing Skills Densityp. 28
B.3 Mixtures and Solutionsp. 28
B.4 Particulate View of Waterp. 31
B.5 Modeling Matter Pictures in the Mindp. 32
B.6 Symbols, Formulas, and Equationsp. 34
B.7 Developing Skills Symbols, Formulas, and Equationsp. 36
B.8 The Electrical Nature of Matterp. 37
B.9 Ions and Ionic Compoundsp. 38
B.10 Developing Skills Ionic Compoundsp. 41
B.11 Investigating Matter Water Testingp. 42
B.12 Pure and Impure Waterp. 45
B.13 Making Decisions The Riverwood Water Mysteryp. 46
B.14 What Are the Possibilities?p. 47
Chemistry at Work Environmental Cleanupp. 48
Section B Summaryp. 50
Section C Investigating the Cause of the Fish Killp. 53
C.1 Solubility of Solids in Waterp. 53
C.2 Developing Skills Solubility and Solubility Curvesp. 55
C.3 Investigating Matter Constructing a Solubility Curvep. 57
C.4 Dissolving Ionic Compoundsp. 59
C.5 Modeling Matter The Dissolving Processp. 62
C.6 Solution Concentrationp. 63
C.7 Developing Skills Describing Solution Concentrationsp. 63
C.8 Inappropriate Heavy-Metal Ion Concentrations?p. 65
C.9 Inappropriate pH Levels?p. 68
C.10 Inappropriate Molecular Substance Concentrations?p. 71
C.11 Investigating Matter Solventsp. 72
C.12 Inappropriate Dissolved Oxygen Levels?p. 75
C.13 Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and Lifep. 76
C.14 Making Decisions Determining the Cause of the Fish Killp. 79
Section C Summaryp. 82
Section D Water Purification and Treatmentp. 85
D.1 Natural Water Purificationp. 86
D.2 Municipal Water Purificationp. 88
D.3 Making Decisions Water Purificationp. 89
D.4 Chlorination of Waterp. 90
D.5 Chlorination and THMsp. 91
D.6 Making Decisions Bottled Water Versus Tap Waterp. 91
D.7 Investigating Matter Water Softeningp. 92
D.8 Water and Water Softeningp. 96
Chemistry at Work Purifying Waterp. 100
Section D Summaryp. 102
Putting It All Together Fish Kill-Finding the Solutionp. 104
Looking Back and Looking Aheadp. 105
Unit 2 Materials: Structure and Usesp. 106
Section A Why We Use What We Dop. 110
A.1 Properties Make the Differencep. 110
A.2 Developing Skills Physical and Chemical Propertiesp. 111
A.3 Properties Matter: Designing the Pennyp. 113
A.4 The Chemical Elementsp. 114
A.5 Investigating Matter Metal or Nonmetal?p. 115
A.6 The Periodic Tablep. 117
A.7 Making Decisions Grouping the Elementsp. 119
A.8 The Pattern of Atomic Numbersp. 120
A.9 Developing Skills Periodic Variation in Propertiesp. 122
Periodic Table of the Elementsp. 124
A.10 Organization of the Periodic Tablep. 125
A.11 Developing Skills Predicting Propertiesp. 125
A.12 What Determines Properties?p. 126
A.13 Making Decisions It's Only Moneyp. 127
Chart of the Elementsp. 128
Section A Summaryp. 130
Section B Earth's Mineral Resourcesp. 134
B.1 Sources and Uses of Metalsp. 134
B.2 Making Decisions Production Versus Usep. 138
B.3 Investigating Matter Converting Copperp. 139
B.4 Metal Reactivityp. 140
B.5 Investigating Matter Relative Reactivities of Metalsp. 142
B.6 Metals: Properties and Usesp. 144
ChemQuandary 1 Discovery of Metalsp. 144
B.7 Developing Skills Trends in Metal Activityp. 146
B.8 Mining and Refiningp. 146
B.9 Modeling Matter Electrons and Redox Processesp. 148
Section B Summaryp. 151
Section C Conserving Matterp. 153
C.1 Keeping Track of Atomsp. 153
C.2 Developing Skills Accounting for Atomsp. 155
C.3 Nature's Conservation: Balanced Chemical Equationsp. 157
C.4 Developing Skills Writing Chemical Equationsp. 159
C.5 Introducing the Mole Conceptp. 161
C.6 Developing Skills Molar Massesp. 163
C.7 Equations and Molar Relationshipsp. 164
C.8 Developing Skills Molar Relationshipsp. 166
C.9 Composition of Materialsp. 166
C.10 Developing Skills Percent Compositionp. 168
C.11 Investigating Matter Retrieving Copperp. 169
C.12 Conservation in the Communityp. 172
C.13 Making Decisions Rethinking, Reusing, Replacing, and Recyclingp. 176
C.14 The Life Cycle of a Materialp. 176
C.15 Developing Skills Copper Life-Cycle Analysisp. 177
C.16 Making Decisions Designing a Coinp. 178
Section C Summaryp. 180
Section D Materials: Designing for Desired Propertiesp. 184
D.1 Structure and Properties: Allotropesp. 184
ChemQuandary 2 A Case of Elusive Identityp. 184
D.2 Developing Skills Linking Properties to Structurep. 187
D.3 Engineered Materialsp. 187
D.4 Making Decisions Alternatives to Metalsp. 190
D.5 Investigating Matter Striking It Richp. 191
D.6 Combining Atoms: Alloys & Semiconductorsp. 193
ChemQuandary 3 Five Cents' Worthp. 193
D.7 Modifying Surfacesp. 195
Chemistry at Work All That's Gold Doesn't Glitter...or Does it?p. 198
D.8 Investigating Matter Copper Platingp. 202
D.9 Making Decisions More Coin Design Considerationsp. 203
Section D Summaryp. 204
Putting It All Together Making Money: Selecting the Best Coin Designp. 206
Looking Back and Looking Aheadp. 207
Unit 3 Petroleum: Breaking and Making Bondsp. 208
Section A Petroleum: What is it?p. 212
A.1 What Is Petroleum?p. 212
A.2 Investigating Matter Separation by Distillationp. 215
A.3 Petroleum Refiningp. 218
A.4 Examining Petroleum's Moleculesp. 219
A.5 Developing Skills Hydrocarbon Boiling Pointsp. 220
A.6 Chemical Bondingp. 220
A.7 Investigating Matter Modeling Alkanesp. 224
A.8 Developing Skills Trends in Alkane Boiling Pointsp. 228
A.9 Investigating Matter Alkanes Revisitedp. 229
A.10 Developing Skills Boiling Points of Alkane Isomersp. 231
A.11 Making Decisions Fuels and Climatep. 232
Section A Summaryp. 233
Section B Petroleum: An Energy Sourcep. 237
ChemQuandary 1 Energy Tracingp. 237
B.1 Energy and Fossil Fuelsp. 238
B.2 Energy Conversionp. 242
B.3 Developing Skills Automobile Energy Conversionsp. 243
B.4 Developing Skills Energy Efficiencyp. 244
B.5 Energy Conversion Efficiencyp. 245
Chemistry at Work Oil's Well That Ends Well: The Work of a Petroleum Geologistp. 246
B.6 Investigating Matter Combustionp. 248
B.7 Using Heats of Combustionp. 251
ChemQuandary 2 A Burning Problem: Part Ip. 252
B.8 Developing Skills Heats of Combustionp. 252
B.9 Altering Fuelsp. 253
ChemQuandary 3 A Burning Problem: Part IIp. 256
B.10 Making Decisions Fuel for Transportationp. 257
Section B Summaryp. 258
Section C Petroleum: A Building-Material Sourcep. 261
C.1 Creating New Options: Petrochemicalsp. 262
C.2 Modeling Matter Polymer Structure and Propertiesp. 265
C.3 Beyond Alkanesp. 266
C.4 Investigating Matter The Buildersp. 267
C.5 More Builder Moleculesp. 270
C.6 Builder Molecules Containing Oxygenp. 272
C.7 Condensation Polymersp. 274
C.8 Investigating Matter Condensationp. 275
C.9 Making Decisions Builder Molecules in Transportationp. 277
Section C Summaryp. 279
Section D Energy Alternatives to Petroleump. 282
D.1 Energy: Past and Presentp. 282
D.2 Developing Skills Fuel Sources over the Yearsp. 283
D.3 Alternate Fuels and Energy Sourcesp. 284
D.4 Investigating Matter Biodiesel Fuelp. 286
D.5 Making Decisions Biodiesel as a Petroleum Substitutep. 288
D.6 Alternate-Fuel Vehiclesp. 289
D.7 Making Decisions Evaluating Alternate-Fuel Optionsp. 293
Section D Summaryp. 294
Putting It All Together Getting Mobilep. 296
Looking Back and Looking Aheadp. 297
Unit 4 Air: Chemistry and the Atmospherep. 298
Section A Gases in the Atmospherep. 302
A.1 Structure of the Atmospherep. 302
A.2 Developing Skills Graphing Atmospheric Datap. 304
A.3 Investigating Matter Properties of Gasesp. 305
A.4 Pressurep. 309
A.5 Developing Skills Applications of Pressurep. 311
A.6 Atmospheric Pressurep. 312
A.7 Atoms and Molecules in Motionp. 313
A.8 Pressure-Volume Behavior of Gasesp. 316
A.9 Developing Skills Predicting Gas Behavior: Pressure-Volumep. 319
A.10 Investigating Matter Exploring Temperature-Volume Relationshipsp. 320
A.11 Temperature-Volume Behavior of Gasesp. 322
A.12 Developing Skills Predicting Gas Behavior: Temperature-Volumep. 323
A.13 Temperature-Pressure Behavior of Gasesp. 324
A.14 Developing Skills Using Gas Relationshipsp. 324
A.15 Nonideal Gas Behaviorp. 325
A.16 Modeling Matter Understanding Kinetic Molecular Theoryp. 325
A.17 Ideal Gases and Molar Volumep. 326
A.18 Developing Skills Molar Volume and Reactions of Gasesp. 329
A.19 The Ideal Gas Lawp. 329
A.20 Developing Skills Using the Ideal Gas Lawp. 331
A.21 Making Decisions Preparing to Explore the Bus-Idling Policyp. 331
Section A Summaryp. 333
Section B Radiation and Climatep. 337
B.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Solar Radiationp. 337
ChemQuandary 1 Always Harmful?p. 341
B.2 Earth's Energy Balancep. 341
B.3 Developing Skills Solar Radiationp. 344
B.4 Thermal Properties At Earth's Surfacep. 344
B.5 Developing Skills Thermal Properties of Materialsp. 346
B.6 Investigating Matter Specific Heat Capacityp. 346
B.7 The Carbon Cyclep. 348
B.8 Making Decisions Considering the Global Carbon Cyclep. 350
B.9 Investigating Matter Carbon Dioxide Levelsp. 350
B.10 Modeling Matter Incomplete Combustionp. 353
B.11 Greenhouse Gases and Global Changep. 354
B.12 Developing Skills Trends in Atmospheric CO[subscript 2] Levelsp. 358
B.13 Making Decisions Considering Greenhouse Gasesp. 359
Section B Summaryp. 360
Section C Acids in the Atmospherep. 363
C.1 Acid Rainp. 363
ChemQuandary 2 The Rain in Maine ...p. 366
C.2 Investigating Matter Making Acid Rainp. 366
Chemistry at Work Using Chemistry to Bring Criminals to Justicep. 369
C.3 Making Decisions Preventing Acid Rainp. 370
C.4 Structure Determines Propertiesp. 370
C.5 Developing Skills Acids and Basesp. 372
C.6 Acidity, Molar Concentration, and pHp. 372
C.7 Developing Skills Interpreting the pH Scalep. 374
C.8 Strengths of Acids and Basesp. 375
C.9 Modeling Matter Strong Versus Concentratedp. 376
C.10 Acids, Bases, and Buffersp. 377
C.11 Investigating Matter Buffersp. 378
C.12 Making Decisions Considering Acid Rainp. 379
Section C Summaryp. 380
Section D Air Pollution: Sources, Effects, and Solutionsp. 383
D.1 Sources of Air Pollutantsp. 384
D.2 Developing Skills Identifying Major Air Contaminantsp. 385
D.3 Smog: Hazardous to Your Healthp. 386
D.4 Making Decisions Vehicles and Smogp. 390
D.5 Stationary-Source Air Pollution Control and Preventionp. 391
ChemQuandary 3 Limiting Reactants and Scrubbersp. 393
D.6 Investigating Matter Cleansing Airp. 393
D.7 Controlling Automobile Emissionsp. 394
ChemQuandary 4 Controlling Air Pollutionp. 395
D.8 Ozone and CFCs: A Continued Success Storyp. 396
D.9 Air-Quality Conclusionsp. 401
Section D Summaryp. 402
Putting It All Together Bus-Idling Policy and Air Qualityp. 404
Looking Back and Looking Aheadp. 405
Unit 5 Industry: Applying Chemical Reactionsp. 406
Section A Some Chemistry of Nitrogenp. 410
A.1 Making Decisions Chemical Processing In Your Lifep. 410
A.2 Chemical Productsp. 410
A.3 Investigating Matter Fertilizer Componentsp. 413
A.4 Fertilizer and the Nitrogen Cyclep. 417
A.5 Making Decisions Plant Nutrientsp. 419
A.6 Modeling Matter The Nitrogen Cyclep. 420
A.7 Investigating Matter Phosphatesp. 422
A.8 Fixing Nitrogen by Oxidation-Reductionp. 425
A.9 Developing Skills Determining Oxidation Statesp. 428
Section A Summaryp. 430
Section B Nitrogen and Industryp. 433
B.1 Kinetics and Equilibriump. 433
B.2 Developing Skills Chemical Systems at Equilibriump. 437
B.3 Investigating Matter Le Chatelier's Principlep. 438
B.4 Industrial Synthesis of Ammoniap. 439
B.5 Nitrogen's Other Facep. 440
B.6 Developing Skills Explosive Nitrogen Chemistryp. 443
B.7 From Raw Materials to Productsp. 443
ChemQuandary 1 The Top Chemicalsp. 444
B.8 Green Chemistry and Responsible Carep. 446
B.9 Making Decisions What Does Riverwood Want?p. 448
Section B Summaryp. 449
Section C Metal Processing and Electrochemistryp. 452
C.1 Electrolysis and Voltaic Cellsp. 452
C.2 Investigating Matter Voltaic Cellsp. 454
C.3 Voltaic Cells and Half-Reactionsp. 456
C.4 Developing Skills Getting Charged by Electrochemistryp. 456
C.5 Batteriesp. 458
ChemQuandary 2 Battery Sizesp. 458
C.6 Industrial Electrochemistryp. 461
C.7 Moving Toward Greener Methodsp. 464
C.8 Making Decisions Asset or Liability?p. 466
Chemistry at Work Searching for Solutions in Chemistryp. 470
Section C Summaryp. 471
Putting It All Together A Chemical Plant for Riverwood?p. 474
Looking Backp. 475
Unit 6 Atoms: Nuclear Interactionsp. 476
Section A The Nature of Atomsp. 480
A.1 A Great Discoveryp. 480
ChemQuandary 1 Scientific Discoveriesp. 483
A.2 Nuclear Radiationp. 484
A.3 The Gold-Foil Experimentp. 486
A.4 Architecture of Atomsp. 487
A.5 Developing Skills Interpreting Isotopic Notationp. 490
A.6 Modeling Matter Isotopic Penniesp. 490
A.7 Isotopes in Naturep. 491
A.8 Developing Skills Molar Mass and Isotopic Abundancep. 492
A.9 Making Decisions Fact or Fiction?p. 493
Section A Summaryp. 494
Section B Nuclear Radiationp. 497
B.1 Exposure to Ionizing Radiationp. 497
ChemQuandary 2 Radiation Exposure Standardsp. 499
B.2 Making Decisions Your Annual Ionizing-Radiation Dosep. 500
B.3 Ionizing Radiation: How Much is Safe?p. 502
B.4 Investigating Matter Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiationp. 504
B.5 Natural Radioactive Decayp. 508
B.6 Developing Skills Nuclear Balancing Actp. 511
B.7 Radonp. 512
B.8 Nuclear Radiation Detectorsp. 514
B.9 Investigating Matter Cloud Chambersp. 515
B.10 Making Decisions Ensuring Public Safetyp. 517
Section B Summaryp. 518
Section C Using Radioactivityp. 521
C.1 Half-Life: A Radioactive Clockp. 521
ChemQuandary 3 Carbon-14 Datingp. 522
C.2 Modeling Matter Understanding Half-Lifep. 523
C.3 Developing Skills Applications of Half-Livesp. 524
C.4 Radioisotopes in Medicinep. 526
ChemQuandary 4 Using Radioisotopes in Medicinep. 528
C.5 Nuclear Medicine Technologiesp. 529
C.6 Artificial Radioactivityp. 531
C.7 Developing Skills Nuclear-Bombardment Reactionsp. 533
ChemQuandary 5 Transmutation of Elementsp. 534
C.8 Extending the Periodic Tablep. 534
C.9 Making Decisions Opinions About Radioactivityp. 536
Section C Summaryp. 538
Section D Nuclear Energy: Benefits and Burdensp. 541
D.1 Unleashing Nuclear Forcesp. 541
D.2 Modeling Matter The Tumbling Domino Effectp. 544
D.3 Nuclear Power Plantsp. 546
Chemistry at Work Nuclear Power in Action: Submarinesp. 550
D.4 Nuclear Fusionp. 552
D.5 Making Decisions The Safest Journeyp. 554
ChemQuandary 6 Risk-Free Travel?p. 556
D.6 Nuclear Waste: Pandora's Boxp. 556
D.7 Developing Skills Disposing of High- and Low-Level Wastep. 560
Section D Summaryp. 561
Putting It All Together Communicating Scientific and Technical Informationp. 563
Unit 7 Food: Matter and Energy for Lifep. 564
Section A Food as Energyp. 568
A.1 Food Groupsp. 568
A.2 Making Decisions Diet and Food Groupsp. 569
A.3 Investigating Matter Snack-Food Energyp. 570
A.4 Energy Flow: From the Sun to Youp. 572
ChemQuandary 1 How Does Your Garden Grow?p. 574
A.5 Energy Release and Storagep. 574
A.6 Developing Skills Energy in Actionp. 576
A.7 Energy In, Energy Outp. 578
A.8 Making Decisions Gain Some, Lose Somep. 578
A.9 Energy Intake and Expenditurep. 580
Section A Summaryp. 581
Section B Energy Storage and Usep. 583
B.1 Carbohydrates: One Way to Combine C, H, and Op. 583
Chemistry at Work Food for Thoughtp. 586
B.2 Fats: Another Way to Combine C, H, and O Atomsp. 588
B.3 Saturated and Unsaturated Fatsp. 590
B.4 Developing Skills Calories From Fatp. 591
B.5 Hydrogenationp. 592
B.6 Developing Skills Fats in the Dietp. 594
ChemQuandary 2 Fat-Free Food?p. 594
B.7 Limiting Reactantsp. 594
B.8 Modeling Matter Limiting-Reactant Analogiesp. 596
B.9 Developing Skills Limiting Reactants in Chemical Reactionsp. 598
B.10 Making Decisions Analyzing Fats and Carbohydratesp. 600
Section B Summaryp. 601
Section C Proteins, Enzymes, and Chemistryp. 604
C.1 Proteins: Function and Structurep. 604
C.2 Modeling Matter Molecular Structure of Proteinsp. 606
C.3 Protein in Your Dietp. 608
C.4 Developing Skills Analyzing Daily Protein Requirementsp. 609
C.5 Investigating Matter Enzymesp. 610
C.6 How Enzymes Workp. 611
ChemQuandary 3 A Problem to Chew Onp. 614
C.7 Investigating Matter Amylase Testsp. 614
C.8 Making Decisions Protein Contentp. 616
Section C Summaryp. 617
Section D Other Substances in Foodsp. 619
D.1 Vitaminsp. 619
D.2 Developing Skills Vitamins in the Dietp. 622
D.3 Investigating Matter Vitamin Cp. 623
D.4 Minerals: Essential Within All Dietsp. 626
D.5 Developing Skills Minerals in the Dietp. 628
D.6 Food Additivesp. 630
D.7 Investigating Matter Analyzing Food-Coloring Additivesp. 633
D.8 Regulating Additivesp. 635
ChemQuandary 4 Nitrite Additivesp. 637
D.9 Artificial Sweetenersp. 637
D.10 Developing Skills Food Additive Surveyp. 638
D.11 Making Decisions Analyzing Vitamins and Mineralsp. 639
Chemistry at Work Keeping Food Supplies Safe for Consumersp. 640
Section D Summaryp. 641
Putting It All Together School Vending Choices: Guiding PTSA's Decisionsp. 644
Looking Backp. 646
Appendicesp. 1
Glossaryp. 1