Cover image for Antennas for portable devices
Title:
Antennas for portable devices
Publication Information:
Chichester : John Wiley, 2007
ISBN:
9780470030738
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PSZ JB 30000010133198 TK7871.6 A58 2007 Open Access Book
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SPACE Ipoh Library 30000003490079 TK7871.6 A58 2007 Open Access Book
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SPACE Pahang Library 30000010087517 TK7871.6 A58 2007 Book Book
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Summary

Summary

Offers a comprehensive and practical reference guide to antennadesign and engineering for portable devices

Antennas are often the most bulky components in many portablewireless devices such as mobile phones. Whilst the demand forever smaller and more powerful wireless devices increases, as doesthe importance of designing and engineering smaller antennas to fitthese devices.

Antennas for Portable Devices provides a complete andcutting-edge guide to the design and engineering of small antennasfor portable electronic devices such as mobile phone handsets,laptop computers, RFID (radio frequency identification), microwavethermal therapies devices, wearable devices, and UWB(ultra-wideband) based consumer devices.

The book addresses practical engineering issues that antennaprofessionals have to deal with. It explains the immediate demandsfor existing systems; discusses the antenna technology for thelatest and emerging applications, and gives comprehensive coverageof hot topics in the wireless industry. Issues includingdesign considerations, engineering design, measurement setup andmethodology, and practical applications are all covered indepth.

Antennas for Portable Devices :

Covers antennas for all modern portable wireless devices fromhandsets, RFID tags, laptops, wearable sensors, UWB-based wirelessUSB dongles and handheld microwave treatment devices Explains how to design and engineer applications forminiaturization of antenna technology, utilising practical casestudies to provide the reader with an understanding of systems anddesign skills Links the basic antenna theory, with design methodology, andengineering design Is amply illustrated with numerous figures and data tables ofantenna designs to aid understanding Features contributions from industry and research experts inantenna technology and applications

This invaluable resource will provide a comprehensive overviewof miniaturizing antenna technology for antenna engineers inindustry, and R&D organizations, graduate students,consultants, researchers, RF professionals, technical managers, aswell as practitioners working in the area of consumer electronics,RF systems, wireless communications, or bio-medical devices.


Author Notes

Zhi Ning Chen is Lead Scientist, Head for Antenna Lab and Manager for Radio Systems Department, Institute for Infocomm Research, Singapore.' Zhi Ning has been working on applied electromagnetics, antennas and RF systems for 20 years. Recently, his major research interests include wave propagation, antennas, and RF design for UWB-(Ultra WideBand) and MIMO- (multiple input, multiple output) based radio systems. He has conducted research work on UWB, including the study of small and broadband antennas for UWB radio systems, measurements on pulsed antennas UWB, assessment of diversity performance of multiple antennas in UWB systems, effects of the human body on the UWB signal propagation, co-design of antennas and RF circuits for UWB transceivers. He has been invited to give talks on UWB antenna design and measurement at several international conferences and workshops, and has organized many international UWB events


Table of Contents

Zhi Ning ChenBrian S. CollinsXianming Qing and Zhi Ning ChenDuixian Liu and Brian GaucherKoichi Ito and Kazuyuki SaitoAkram Alomainy and Yang Hao and Frank PasveerZhi Ning Chen and Terence S.P. See
Forewordp. ix
Acknowledgementsp. xi
List of Contributorsp. xiii
1 Introductionp. 1
Referencesp. 7
2 Handset Antennasp. 9
2.1 Introductionp. 9
2.2 Performance Requirementsp. 11
2.3 Electrically Small Antennasp. 14
2.4 Classes of Handset Antennasp. 18
2.5 The Quest for Efficiency and Extended Bandwidthp. 20
2.5.1 Handset Geometriesp. 21
2.5.2 Antenna Position in the Handsetp. 21
2.5.3 The Effect of the Userp. 23
2.5.4 Antenna Volumep. 24
2.5.5 Impedance Behavior of a Typical Antenna in the Low Bandp. 24
2.5.6 Fields and Currents on Handsetsp. 27
2.5.7 Managing the Length-Bandwidth Relationshipp. 29
2.5.8 The Effect on RF Efficiency of Other Components of the Handsetp. 35
2.5.9 Specific Absorption Ratep. 38
2.5.10 Hearing Aid Compliancep. 39
2.5.11 Economic Considerationsp. 39
2.6 Practical Designp. 40
2.6.1 Simulationsp. 40
2.6.2 Materials and Constructionp. 41
2.6.3 Recyclingp. 41
2.6.4 Building the Prototypep. 41
2.6.5 Measurementp. 42
2.6.6 Design Optimizationp. 44
2.7 Starting Points for Design and Optimizationp. 44
2.7.1 External Antennasp. 45
2.7.2 Balanced Antennasp. 47
2.7.3 Antennas for Other Servicesp. 48
2.7.4 Dual-Antenna Interference Cancellationp. 49
2.7.5 Multiple Input, Multiple Outputp. 49
2.7.6 Antennas for Lower-Frequency Bands - TV and Radio Servicesp. 50
2.8 The RF Performance of Typical Handsetsp. 52
2.9 Conclusionp. 55
Referencesp. 55
3 RFID Tag Antennasp. 59
3.1 Introductionp. 59
3.2 RFID Fundamentalsp. 60
3.2.1 RFID System Configurationp. 60
3.2.2 Classification of RFID Systemsp. 62
3.2.3 Principles of Operationp. 65
3.2.4 Frequencies, Regulations and Standardizationp. 67
3.3 Design Considerations for RFID Tag Antennasp. 71
3.3.1 Near-field RFID Tag Antennasp. 73
3.3.2 Far-field RFID Tag Antennasp. 80
3.4 Effect of Environment on RFID Tag Antennasp. 97
3.4.1 Near-field Tagsp. 98
3.4.2 Far-field Tagsp. 100
3.4.3 Case Studyp. 106
3.5 Summaryp. 109
Referencesp. 109
4 Laptop Antenna Design and Evaluationp. 113
4.1 Introductionp. 113
4.2 Laptop-Related Antenna Issuesp. 114
4.2.1 Typical Laptop Display Constructionp. 114
4.2.2 Possible Antennas for Laptop Applicationsp. 113
4.2.3 Mechanical and Industrial Design Restrictionsp. 116
4.2.4 LCD Surface Treatment in Simulationsp. 118
4.2.5 Antenna Orientation in Displayp. 119
4.2.6 The Difference between Laptop and Cellphone Antennasp. 120
4.2.7 Antenna Location Evaluationsp. 122
4.3 Antenna Design Methodologyp. 124
4.3.1 Modelingp. 125
4.3.2 Cut-and-Tryp. 125
4.3.3 Measurementsp. 125
4.4 PC Card Antenna Performance and Evaluationp. 127
4.5 Link Budget Modelp. 129
4.6 An INF Antenna Implementationp. 131
4.7 Integrated and PC Card Solutions Comparisonp. 133
4.8 Dualband Examplesp. 134
4.8.1 An Inverted-F Antenna with Coupled Elementsp. 135
4.8.2 A Dualband PCB Antenna with Coupled Floating Elementsp. 138
4.8.3 A Loop Related Dualband Antennap. 142
4.9 Remarks on WLAN Antenna Design and Evaluationsp. 148
4.10 Antennas for Wireless Wide Area Network Applicationsp. 148
4.10.1 INF Antenna Height Effects on Bandwidthp. 149
4.10.2 A WWAN Dualband Examplep. 152
4.11 Ultra-Wide Band Antennasp. 157
4.11.1 Description of the UWB Antennap. 159
4.11.2 UWB Antenna Measurement Resultsp. 163
Referencesp. 164
5 Antenna Issues in Microwave Thermal Therapiesp. 169
5.1 Microwave Thermal Therapiesp. 169
5.1.1 Introductionp. 169
5.1.2 Classification by Therapeutic Temperaturep. 169
5.1.3 Heating Schemesp. 170
5.2 Interstitial Microwave Hyperthermiap. 171
5.2.1 Introduction and Requirementsp. 171
5.2.2 Coaxial-Slot Antennap. 173
5.2.3 Numerical Calculationp. 173
5.2.4 Performance of the Coaxial-Slot Antennap. 177
5.2.5 Temperature Distributions Around the Antennasp. 180
5.3 Clinical Trialsp. 183
5.3.1 Equipmentp. 183
5.3.2 Treatment by Use of a Single Antennap. 183
5.3.3 Treatment by Use of an Array Applicatorp. 185
5.3.4 Results of the Treatmentp. 187
5.4 Other Applicationsp. 189
5.4.1 Treatment of Brain Tumorsp. 189
5.4.2 Intracavitary Microwave Hyperthermia for Bile Duct Carcinomap. 189
5.5 Summaryp. 194
Referencesp. 195
6 Antennas for Wearable Devicesp. 197
6.1 Introductionp. 197
6.1.1 Wireless Body Area Networksp. 198
6.1.2 Antenna Design Requirements for Wireless BAN/PANp. 199
6.2 Modelling and Characterization of Wearable Antennasp. 204
6.2.1 Wearable Antennas for BANs/PANsp. 204
6.2.2 UWB Wearable Antennasp. 209
6.3 WBAN Radio Channel Characterization and Effect of Wearable Antennasp. 213
6.3.1 Radio Propagation Measurement for WBANsp. 214
6.3.2 Propagation Channel Characteristicsp. 214
6.4 Case Study: A Compact Wearable Antenna for Healthcare Sensorsp. 218
6.4.1 Application Requirementsp. 218
6.4.2 Theoretical Antenna Considerationsp. 218
6.4.3 Sensor Antenna Modelling and Characterizationp. 220
6.4.4 Propagation Channel Characterizationp. 223
6.5 Summaryp. 226
Referencesp. 227
7 Antennas for UWB Applicationsp. 231
7.1 UWB Wireless Systemsp. 231
7.2 Challenges in UWB Antenna Designp. 233
7.3 State-of-the-Art Solutionsp. 247
7.3.1 Frequency-Independent Designsp. 247
7.3.2 Planar Broadband Designsp. 248
7.3.3 Crossed and Rolled Planar Broadband Designsp. 253
7.3.4 Planar Printed PCB Designsp. 254
7.3.5 Planar Antipodal Vivaldi Designsp. 257
7.4 Case Studyp. 258
7.4.1 Small Printed Antenna with Reduced Ground-Plane Effectp. 258
7.4.2 Wireless USBp. 270
7.5 Summaryp. 282
Referencesp. 283
Indexp. 287